Friday, 1 April 2011

Pamsimas evaluation in tasikmalaya

Water is a basic requirement of human life. An individual requires at least 50 liters of water per day (Gleick, 1996) .1 These needs include the use of water for drinking, cooking, sanitation and other household. Meeting the needs of clean water for household consumption in Indonesia, viewed from the water distribution service providers are divided into 3 (three) parties, namely government, private sector and communities themselves.
The Indonesian government is committed to the mandate to fulfill one of the Millennium Development Goals, namely reducing half the proportion of people who do not have access to drinking water and basic sanitation by 2015. Implementation of the government's commitment to the local context (county / city), constrained by several things, among other wide area services, the poor condition of society, and fiscal capacity rendah.2 This became the background of drinking water programs and community-based sanitation (PAMSIMAS).
Experience of the International Water Consultancy project in 1990, showed that community involvement can provide good planning data, faster and more effectively biaya.3 In other parts mentioned also that, the need for clean water ketersedianya with good quality to support life, a necessity human subject. Further explained that the Copenhagen declaration, affirming because water is a scarce resources and fragile, its economic costs should be defined and priorities should be recognized and enforced. Pricing is also necessary that will create a sense of responsibility and ownership of water systems. Copenhagen statement also called for all governments and relevant experts to apply these guiding principles in making and implementing national policies and action plans for them.
PAMSIMAS program that enters year three, not yet fully meet the expected target. From the district profile data 2008 status of 2010-2, found that there are 7 of 106 new districts receiving program, which has a working group on water supply and environmental sanitation. This is important considering the existence of this working group is expected to be a means of coordination and consultation of all interested parties in developing drinking water supply in the area.
As a program, PAMSIMAS program at a time will end, but as a definition of the needs of drinking water supply and sanitation will continue. To be able to measure the impact PAMSIMAS program sustainability, and values ​​- values ​​that are built from the program, viewed from the socio-economic and environmental aspects, the research efforts are needed that can predict and anticipate the continuation of this program.
Research conducted, in addition to predict the sustainability of the program and values ​​- values ​​that have been built through this program are also required to seek constraints on the implementation and then find solutions, to management development program of social, economic and environmental.
BASIC THEORY
Associated with the success criteria used for an evaluation process, Feurstein (1990:25-27) in (Adi Isbandi, 2008) 4 propose some indicators to consider. This indicator is used to examine the implementation of activities, provision of drinking water and sanitation community based in Tasikmalaya regency. The nine indicators are visible presence in the community of beneficiaries, program managers and policy makers.
The first indicator is the indicator of availability, to see if all aspects of the process PAMSIMAS program, in a handbook issued by the Directorate of public works has been carried out in Tasikmalaya regency. The next indicator is the relevance of, relating to the use of the system of water supply infrastructure at the sites. Does the implementation of the system is suitable and acceptable to the beneficiary communities.
The next important indicator is the affordability, this indicator is required to view the distance of the source of clean water especially to consumers who are the beneficiaries of the program. With regard to affordability is the coverage, in which groups of people who need these programs to underserved.
Quality indicators that need to be studied in the program, especially drinking water supply and sanitation in Tasikmalaya District, is primarily about the public perception of the quality of water they consume. The next indicator is the effort, which has been optimized to be seen whether what is done all the stakeholders to the passage of events. Indicators of efficiency is to look at the use of clean water that has been provided if it is exploited properly. And the last to be seen whether it has been a change in the beneficiary communities drinking water programs and community-based sanitation.
Location of the indicators of success used to examine the implementation of the program, to research activities can be seen in Figure 1.
Indicators of program success
Water Needs
Water Supply and Sanitation Community-Based
Continuing Activities
Social ·
· Economy
· Environment
recommendation

Figure 1. Research Framework
METHODOLOGY
Location of selected research in Tasikmalaya District, upon the recommendation of the Directorate General of Cipta Karya Ministry of Public Works, as the executing agency of the activities of Water Supply and Sanitation Community Based. That is the area with the prevalence of diseases related to high water and yet have access to drinking water and sanitation.
In the figure 2. can be seen, the low percentage of the population access to clean water through pipes / plumbing, in the Tasikmalaya regency. Most of the population still use dug wells.
The study was conducted by examining the program manager and program beneficiaries in Tasikmalaya District, and set a quota of 64 samples. Random sampling design with Cluster Proportional to Population Size transactions are carried out by means of:
Dividing the study area or city district that included in the program into the Cluster District PAMSIMAS drawn at random, then from the sub-cluster will be deployed to the village level, namely: Tasikmalaya District: 3 villages of one district.
Setting the number of clusters to be selected on the basis of the unity of the desired sample analysis, from district to village. The number of samples per village via proportional to population size by using the formula:

......................... (1)
Description:
The number of households who have served PAMSIMAS programs in 3 villages (N)
The number of samples required (n) = 64 HHs
The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics to describe the frequency distribution of program evaluation. Then the correlation is also seen from some of the variables examined in this study. Implementation of the program later in value based on nine indicators, using the percentage of each relevant variables with the indicator. The value found then searched the average, to obtain predictions of sustainability of the program and values ​​- values ​​that have been built through this program. Views are also obstacles and solutions, to develop drinking water supply and sanitation community based.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
In table 1. shown the results of sample calculations, using formulas (1) study sites in three villages, the village Wakap, Cidugeleun and Cinunjang.
Table 1. Distribution of Total Sample
Village

Number of people

Total sample (n)
Wakap

512

24
Cidugaleun

623

30
Cinunjang

212

10
Total

1347

64
The number of samples in the 3 villages, divided proportionally according to population PAMSIMAS beneficiaries of the program. Samples per village, do adjust to the smallest unit of the institution of PAMSIMAS programs, which are, or at district or village level.
In figure 3. displayed graphs that depict conditions in the study site visits of their socioeconomic status. In Tasikmalaya regency number of districts served by the program is 12 (twelve), with a number of villages of 15 (fifteen), and hamlets: 68 (sixty eight). From the research, the public program recipients have an average income (3a) doubled its expenditure (3b). (Rp.1.238.157, 20 appeals Rp.604.576, 11). This shows that, from their farming activities have enough in their daily lives (table 2). Research on the culture of economic activity population Tasikmalaya, among others, is the emergence of grassroots push to compete socially, because of waning influence bangsawan.6 Forms activities they are doing is to save and persevere in cultivating the fields, so they have the capital to buy land or wetland, purchased from other farmers or nobility. Another way is to trade or make handicrafts and batik. And another form is to go abroad and become a mortgagee.
From the results of the study also found that 92% of respondents owning / living in private houses, respondents who have no cars, only 28% who have a motor, 73% had refrigerators, 68% did not have television. This shows that society has chosen items that have productive value (refrigerator) than consumptive items (television). Even the trend of motor cycling, not found in the respondents in Tasikmalaya. However, levels of education up to primary school only (Table 3), causing less to the development, the welfare of the research sites.
Figure 3. The economic conditions of respondents
b. Expenditure
a. Income

Table 2. Work Table 3. Education
Job

Frequency

Percent




Last Education

Frequency

Percent
Not Working

6

9.4




No schooling

2

3.1
Farmer

27

42.2




Never graduated from elementary school

7

10.9
Merchant

4

6.2




Elementary school graduation

43

67.2
Entrepreneur

6

9.4




Never graduated from junior high school

6

9.4
Private Employees

3

4.7




Junior High School graduation

2

3.1
Civil servants / Police / Army

3

4.7




High school graduation

2

3.1
Labor

12

18.8




PT graduate (D3, S1, S2, S3)

2

3.1
Total

64

100.0




Total

64

100.0
Phase of the program to look at indicators of availability in Figure 4, shows that the results of research, performed program managers, found that there was (18.75 out of 25) 79% of the process have been identified and implemented. PAMSIMAS own program Process of socialization begins at the national level up to the stage of preparation of the governing body at the community level. This process is prepared to be implemented within 1.5 years. The success of the program manager to implement 79% PAMSIMAS process, one of which is the readiness of the facilitators, who are mostly youth graduates, who oversee the planning and technical implementation, community empowerment and health behaviors. All stages of program activities PAMSIMAS of 25 stages, divided into stages of preparation, planning and implementation.

PREPARATION PHASE

1


1


1 / 2


1 / 2






1 / 2


1 / 2


1 / 4
PLANNING STAGE







1 / 4









1 / 4






1 / 4
IMPLEMENTATION PHASE




1 / 4






Figure 4. Process Activity
Description of colors: blue = yes, green = no, brown = missing, the numbers pointed to the stage of the unknown / implemented program managers
From the chart of the process of figure 4. can be seen that the problem lies at the initial stage, namely at the beginning of the process of preparation and planning. This can happen because of 2 (two) things. Firstly because of the limitations of the start time of program implementation. Where problems occur the budget disbursement. Then the second thing is still weak coordination at the district level. This is evident with the formation has not been inter-sector working group dealing with the problem of drinking water and environmental sanitation.
Indicators of relevance, can be seen in Table 4 Crosstabulation of responsibility in maintaining the water infrastructure to collect water. In the calculation it was found that the father, mother and even the whole family has a responsibility in the maintenance of water infrastructure. Similarly, in the utilization of the facilities including water collection, dominated by his mother's side. Secondly it demonstrates the ease and relevance of the technology used, so that each family member, even a mother can take a role in the utilization of infrastructure. If seen from the percentage value then it can be deduced, the relevance indicator is 100% - 23.8% (the role of the father) = 76.2%. Another thing to note, this study again confirms the important role of women in water supply for the family.
Table 4. The responsibility of infrastructure * Parties that collect water Crosstabulation



Party Collecting Water

Total
Mr /
Husband

Mother /
Wife

Child

All Family Members

Mr. And Mrs.

Community
Responsible Party
Maintain responsibility for Water Infrastructure

Father / Husband

4.8%

12.7%

.0%

1.6%

3.2%

1.6%

23.8%
Mother / Wife

1.6%

17.5%

1.6%

1.6%

.0%

.0%

22.2%
Child

.0%

.0%

1.6%

.0%

.0%

.0%

1.6%
All Family Members

1.6%

7.9%

.0%

17.5%

.0%

.0%

27.0%
Mr. And Mrs.

.0%

1.6%

.0%

.0%

7.9%

.0%

9.5%
Mother And Child

.0%

.0%

.0%

1.6%

.0%

.0%

1.6%
Community

.0%

14.3%

.0%

.0%

.0%

.0%

14.3%
Total

8.0%

54.0%

3.2%

22.2%

11.1%

1.6%

100.0%
The availability of affordable water source that is in the range of distances less than 500 meters (table 5.) From home. Or it could be said to be within the scope of the neighborhood. This is quite helpful, considering the source water prior to the program PAMSIMAS to more than 1 kilometer from the house. The use of public hydrants (table 6.) Indicate that beneficiaries use their water resources from PAMSIMAS program. For affordability indicator values ​​found in figure 100% - 7.8% (range> 500) = 92.2%.



Table 5. Distance by Place of residence of Water Resources
Distance

Color

Frequency

purple
chocolate
Percent


<>

Blue

23

35.9


10 Meter-500 Meter

Green

36

56.2


500 Meter-1000 Meter

Chocolate

4

blue
6.2


> 1000 Meters

Purple

1

green
1.6


Total




64

100.0





















Table 6. Source of Water Used
Source water

Color

Frequency

blue
Percent


Well

Blue

7

10.9


Faucet / Public Hydrant

Green

38

chocolate
purple
59.4


3 and 4

Chocolate

1

1.6


Water eye

Purple

18

green
28.1


Total




64

100.0


















Community participation in determining their needs, prepare and receive services from, by and for people seen in gambar5. Where the question of involvement in deliberations to determine interest and capable of changing behavior, program planning for water supply (PAB), the determination of the location of targets and making rules about clean water answered yes (involved) by most respondents. The amount of involvement in the utilization of water supply and sanitation-based communities is 64.83%, calculated from four variables in Table 7.
Table 7. Community involvement in the Process Activities

Aspect

Answers
Yes

no
Frequency

Percent

frequency

percent
Involvement in Deliberation PAMSIMAS To Learn The interest and capable of Behavior Change

39

60.9

11

17.2
Involvement in Making Rules About PAB

36

56.2

14

21.9
Involvement in Goal To Determine Location PAB

45

70.3

5

7.8
Involvement in Program Planning BAO and Behavior Change Unhealthy

46


71.9

12

18.8
In table 8. Can be seen how much the respondent beneficiaries, who knows PAMSIMAS program, compared to clean water sources they use.
Table 8. Knowledge Program PAMSIMAS * Clean Water Source Used Crosstabulation



Source of Water Used

Total
Well

Faucet / Public Hydrant

Wells and HU

Water eye
Knowing PAMSIMAS Program

Yes

6

36

1

13

56
No

1

2

0

5

8
Total

7

38

1

18

64
From table 8 can be seen that, given the number of circles is an indicator of program coverage PAMSIMAS. If that number converted into shape percent will be obtained value of 56.25%. This indicates that porporsi beneficiaries of the new program half of the expected coverage capabilities. In the table can also be read there are 35 respondents, or 54.69% still use wells and springs directly, without the benefit of PAMSIMAS program. The linkage of clean water sources used by knowledge of the program PAMSIMAS, proven statistically significant at 95% confidence level (table 9.). This proves that 56.25% of respondents who use PAMSIMAS program, change their habits in seeking and using sources of clean water, for their family consumption.
Table 9. Knowledge Program PAMSIMAS * Clean Water Source Used Correlation
Information

Knowing PAMSIMAS Program

Water Resources
Pearson Correlation

1

.263 *
Sig. (2-tailed)




.035
Sum of Squares and Cross-products

7.000

13.125
Covariance

.111

.208
N

64

64
*. Correlation is significant at the 0:05 level (2-tailed).
To see the quality of water services, can be seen from the test results of water samples from locations PAMSIMAS conducted by health facilitators. In the three study sites have 1 location where the water is still contained e-coli bacteria content. Presumably these bacteria originated from domestic cow dung farmer, near PAMSIMAS installation. It was also found in the research field, spring water, which is not closed, because of the influence of local cultural myth. This is not good for water quality, and therefore can cause the entry of dirt into the water source, also not safe against the possibility of sabotage to the public water source.
In table 10. can be seen that there are only 57% of respondents PAMSIMAS program beneficiaries, stating that the quality of water they consume good. whereas other respondents did not answer. This can give an idea, that the clean water that can be consumed from PAMSIMAS program quality is still not quite satisfactory. Although the incidence of diseases caused by water shortages and disease vectors in water perindukannya small, but still found also in the location of the study (tables 11 and 12), although a small percentage of incidence, which is about 5-6% only.
Table 10. Water Quality During PAMSIMAS that You Use It
Quality

Frequency

Percent
Good

37

57.8
Missing System

27

42.2
Total

64

100.0
Table 12. In 3 Months Last Member of Family Sick Cholera / typhoid / dysentery
Table 11. In 3 Months Last Member of Family Sick scabies / skin infection / trachoma / Leprosy / hepatitis / Diarrhea




Ill

Frequency

Percent




Ill

Frequency

Percent
Yes

4

6.2




Yes

3

4.7
No

60

93.8




No

61

95.3
Total

64

100.0




Total

64

100.0






















Indicators effort, seen from the willingness to pay PAMSIMAS program beneficiaries. In table 13 may be seen that there are only 59.4% of respondents are willing to allocate money to finance the operation of PAMSIMAS. This shows pahamnya still not society that water is one of economic goods, which need to be financed in its utilization. Of the respondents who are willing to allocate money for operational costs PAMSIMAS, found the average (mean) of Rp.3.421, 05. If this figure we multiply the number of beneficiaries of the villagers, and then divided by the cost that is invested (275 million rupiah per village), divided by 12 months, it was found that, if implemented dues regularly and orderly start-up capital (275 million rupiah per village) average average will be back in 18 (eighteen) years.
Table 13. Allocation of costs incurred per month who are willing to operationalize PAMSIMAS

Willingness to Pay

Frequency

Percent
2000

20

31.2
5000

18

28.1
Total

38

59.4
System

26

40.6
Total

64

100.0
Utilization of water from PAMSIMAS program, which does not have a payment mechanism, causing the absence of quantity restrictions on usage. This is especially true at community level. To place restrictions on family-level water use, although still in a small percentage. In areas with difficulty in obtaining clean water, with pengeenaan tariff restrictions should apply in order to optimize the use of clean water. Percentage of families that limit the use of water is 4.7% (table 14).
Table 14. Restrictions For Family Members in Water Use
There are restrictions on water use

Frequency

Percent


Yes

3

4.7


No

61

95.3


Total

64

100.0


Impact PAMSIMAS existence, economically at the family level is the level (6 of 64) 9.38%. This can be seen in table 15 which illustrates the existence of business and business plan related to the program PAMSIMAS. While the cultural impact, particularly on the culture sinks, a high percentage of 98, 4% (table 16). This figure illustrates the impact of the availability of clean water, which is more easy access to water will increase the likelihood of respondents wash their hands. If made an average of economic and cultural impact, it will be found in the number percentage 53.89%.
Table 15. Economic enterprises utilizing water PAMSIMAS * plans to develop economic enterprises with water PAMSIMAS crosstabulation



Have a Business Plan Developing Economy with water PAMSIMAS

Total
Yes

No
There's Economic Enterprises
Utilizing Water PAMSIMAS

Yes

2

0

2
No

4

56

60
Total

6

56

62
Table 16. Always Wash Hands Before Eating
Always wash hands before eating

Frequency

Percent


Yes

63

98.4


No

1

1.6


Total

64

100.0


Of the 9 (nine) indicators used to analyze research purposes, can be made assessment of the activities of total drinking water supply and sanitation community based in Tasikmalaya District in table 17. In general, these activities still have a good in its implementation (60.39). So that can be predicted, this activity will be able to give effect to continue, after the program is completed. To be able to sustain the implementation of this activity, after the program finishes need to be considered, especially regarding the efficient use of water resources. Because of the research, found this is the worst indicator (4.7), and may affect the overall program management of drinking water supply and sanitation community based in Tasikmalaya regency.
Table 16. Indicators of Program Implementation in Tasikmalaya PAMSIMAS
Indicator

Value (%)

Information
Availability

79

Good
Relevance

76,2

Good
Affordability

92,2

Very good
Utilization

64,83

Good
Scope

56,25

Good enough
Quality

57

Good enough
Effort

59,4

Good enough
Efficiency

4,7

Very poor
Impact

53,89

Good enough
Total

60,39


Good
Description:
0-20 = very bad,
20.1 to 40 = bad,
40.1 to 60 = good,
60.1 to 80 = good,
80.1 to 100 = very good
Figure 5. Indicators of Program Implementation in Tasikmalaya PAMSIMAS
CONCLUSION
From the results of evaluations that have been done, to avoid inefficient use of water pricing methods can be applied to water. Consultation arrangements and pricing methods may involve the Regional Water Company in Tasikmalaya regency.
Expansion of service coverage can be done, if the contribution of operational costs has been carried out in an orderly manner. The addition of facilities and infrastructure will add to the beneficiaries, which can have an impact on improving the quality of life settlements widely.
Improved water quality can be done in reformulate the need and importance of local values ​​and health, including the governance of water and livestock business community, then find the best solution in order to prepare better water.
There should also be given to the public awareness that water is an important item, so to get necessary replacement economically, would increase the willingness to pay beneficiaries. This will speed up the return value is the economic capital, and also may increase the willingness of beneficiaries to develop business, using existing water sources.
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