The implementation program of Water Supply and Sanitation Community-based drink, otherwise known as PAMSIMAS, has been running for approximately two years. The program which began in 2008, initially had problems related to the coordination and synchronization program each agency involved in the program. Change the controlling institution / executing agency of the Ministry of Health to the Ministry of Public Works, cause problems at the beginning of the program. At the beginning of the year 2008, according to one official PAMSIMAS program, PAMSIMAS must walk with the limitations of existing devices .
The issue of coordination between sectors visible, when the program has reached the stage of construction, in some places, the raw water to be used, test results have not come out. Though PAMSIMAS water tested by Public Health Service mandatory, and must have qualified as clean water.
Implementation PAMSIMAS not only hindered the coordination problem. As an illustration, we can see in three locations PAMSIMAS implementation, namely the city of Kupang, Kabupaten Banjar and Tasikmalaya regency. In three places, there are some problems, which need to be considered PAMSIMAS stakeholders.
In the city of Kupang, the main problem for PAMSIMAS program is looking for sources of water that can be used as raw water PAMSIMAS. In addition, the availability of raw water, too often a constraint, this is due to a decrease in discharge due to climate island of Timor. Sources of water available in the city of Kupang is uneven. Because of the difficulty of finding water sources, managers need to get the owners of water sources (wells) that the social spirit, to make private wells as a source of raw water.
Geological structure of land in the city of Kupang prone to contamination. This is due to soil type Kupang quickly reduce waste water on the surface, so water is easily contaminated underground. The solution is to perform first wastewater discharged into the ground.
Infrastructure materials PAMSIMAS many brought in from outside the island, this led to the expensive infrastructure installed. Another problem related to the management of sanitation is poor. Spatial changes that are less controlled. The performance of the facilitators, especially related to the problem of frequent delays in receiving salaries and difficulty in obtaining a facilitator with sufficient capability to handle the management of PAMSIMAS.
Beneficiary communities in the city of Kupang, the results of research are also still feel burdened and heavy to be able to collect the money themselves. There is also internal strife community self-supporting institution or with outside parties. Managing behavior problems, suggesting the need for attention to the stage time PAMSIMAS program.
In Banjar District found a problem related to community concern about the use and maintenance of the water. There are behavioral defecate on the banks of the river using a toilet float. Communities also feel burdened by the self-generated funds. This condition can be caused by, yet uneven provision of good sanitation facilities in schools and neighborhoods, trash, and sewer line. This occurred mainly in rural areas and suburbs. There are limitations to local government budgets, causing the construction of clean water and sanitation infrastructure has not been evenly distributed in Banjar district.
Found a consultant with the communications gap between government agencies. This led to the determination of target villages, not in accordance with the priority scale. Entry List for Use of Budget PAMSIMAS program at Banjar District, in 2010, fell not on time so that implementation is delayed. From two years of implementation PAMSIMAS in Banjar district can be concluded, that the time for the preparation process of empowerment and behavior change, too limited or narrow, not sufficient.
Problems in Tasikmalaya regency PAMSIMAS program related to the management and maintenance of facilities and infrastructure PAMSIMAS, after waking up. Necessary unity of understanding between agencies involved in program development PAMSIMAS. Included in the administration of agency budgets in the development PAMSIMAS.
In Tasikmalaya Regency is the case, means PAMSIMAS built first, and checked the quality of the water, indicating a gap of communication and coordination between sectors.
Community activities related to the culture ponds and sanitation, is a challenge for program PAMSIMAS. Community empowerment program in the program PAMSIMAS require more attention and time of implementation guidelines.
In three of the City / County location PAMSIMAS program implementation, shown the importance of community empowerment in the phase of the program execution time PAMSIMAS. To explore the effectiveness of time, an examination of the perceptions, knowledge and experience of managing the program, which consists of facilitators, village, and the management of water and sanitation sector institutions in society.
The result is, all the stages which are not categorized as effective, is in the planning stages. Most of the form of empowerment. The nine stages are: sectoral coordination of districts, the preparation longlist districts, establishment of villages PAMSIMAS location, method of MPA-PHST, Preparation proaksi, triggers with CLTS, Mobilization CHAPTER behavior changes, behavior changes CHAPTER Certification, and Preparation RKM . Left stages of implementation according to the guidelines PAMSIMAS compared with the time stage of the research results can be seen in table 1.
Stages PAMSIMAS Activities
From the research, it can be concluded that in general, providing time to implement the program PAMSIMAS is enough, especially for construction activities. The process of empowerment in PAMSIMAS programs, need to be noticed and corrected, especially in the determination of the village until the certification CHAPTER behavior, which included community and changing patterns of behavior.
The capacity of recipient communities varied programs, influential in the effectiveness phase of the program. Communities that have high capacity (terutam of educational background and economic ability) will be easier in mengembangankan program.
Needed clarity in the material aspects or stages of socialization in the community, particularly regarding the sequence of the socialized aspects. PAMSIMAS program managers need to do an evaluation after a socialization, so if there is a lack of unfamiliarity in the community, can be fixed. From the results of Focus Group Disscusion found, still needs to be disseminated lanjtuan to implementing the program, because it still met the inequality defining the program.
Increased preparedness community self-supporting institution in terms of quantity and quality, to capture and develop programs PAMSIMAS, became one of the research findings. The ability of the community in social institutions, their economic ability to pay dues and the preservation of the environment around water sources become important elements of program sustainability.
Improved coordination across sectors need to be more intensive, because of the Focus Group Disscusion there are sectors that have not been involved, even the working group that should exist at the district / city has not seen its existence. The results of the assessment phase, the effectiveness of time as can be seen in table 2.
Stages Assessment Activities PAMSIMAS
Recommendations for program managers
As a step to streamline the time, necessary to formulate the coordination structures at district / city (in terms of schedule, agenda, agencies involved, roles and responsibilities, budget and related issues), so as to create coordination between programs and sectors, at every stage of activity through regular meeting agreed.
To improve the effectiveness of time associated with the stages of PAMSIMAS, may be setting time (time management / schedule), with periodic re-warning (reminding), for interested parties submit the village to the list.
From the research, empowerment activities can not be implemented simultaneously with the physical development projects, which need to be prepared in a different time (the process is done first, so if time is less empowerment, there is still time in years the implementation of physical development).
At the time of socialization in the community, the need for clarity and decisiveness on stage PAMSIMAS activities.
Managers need to consider the availability of water resources, water quality (physical, chemical, biological) and quantity (liters / family), which is distributed to the beneficiaries.
PAMSIMAS Managers need to consult and coordinate with the taps, especially regarding service areas, water resources, maintenance of infrastructure, quality of water services and the determination of family contributions of beneficiaries. Managers need to conduct value-benefit calculation, the results are communicated to the beneficiary community, after they implemented the program PAMSIMAS. So that together they try to maintain the sustainability of their drinking water supplies independently, through the maintenance of infrastructure institutional management, order fee, and increase the capacity and capability in the management of drinking water. Mainly because the value of great benefits, cause payback period can be very quickly accomplished.
Recommendations for beneficiary communities
Details of activities to be carried out in RKM prepared by involving the community. Not only handed over to the companion of society (empowerment, health, engineering).
Needs and capabilities improvement program receiving communities can be bridged by increasing the quality and ability of community companion.
SPAM Management Agency need to think about PAMSIMAS development, as a business unit of the community (make bussiness plan), to sustain operations and further development.
MFI and BP SPAM needs to increase the number of women's involvement in the composition of its membership, given the contribution of women in the household water supply.------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------