Friday, 1 April 2011

problems of low cost appartment delayed implementation

Abstract
Construction of flats, after the fourth year, starting from 2004 has only reached about 30% of the original plan. The government hopes the availability of 60,000 apartment units through 2009. However, the total flats that had been built up in 2008 reached only 15,400 units.
This study aims to identify the problems of delayed implementation of the development of this program in Indonesia. So that steps can be taken further efforts to resolve the problem. Recommendations from this study is not yet final findings. Further studies are needed to find problem-solving strategies that have been identified.
Identify the problems of delayed development of this program, carried out using qualitative and quantitative approaches. Qualitatively, namely by conducting policy studies and literature. Whether that has been issued by the government and private, relating to the construction of flats. The study of literature, deals with real problems that caused delays and the latest development of this program in Indonesia.
The conclusion of this research is the identification of problems, which caused delays in implementation of the development of this program in Indonesia.
Keywords: flats, problems, identification, too late

A. Background
Development of this program en masse, is one of the government's efforts to provide adequate housing for its citizens. The program is in latarbelakangi by a national public issues, related to the expansion of slums located in the city - cities and metropolitan.

UN Habitat, an international agency dealing with housing issues, estimates that nearly one billion people live in slums, in the cities of the world. Where most of the slums are located in the city - the city of developing countries. They predict that if the problem is not the slums handled properly, then the number of people living in slums will double in 2030.

Seeing the trend, vertical housing programs into one effort to reduce, even more so in reducing the rate of growth of slums.

Another problem underlying the development of this program is limited and the high price of land in urban areas. Jakarta as Indonesia's largest city, has a percentage of the population growth of 1.3% per year. Having housing needs of 70,000 residential units per year. Jakarta land area of ​​66,152 hectares, 39,691 hectares to be allocated for housing. While land prices in Jakarta have been very high. As an example, land prices in the area of ​​Kemayoran reached the price of USD $ 5,000,000.00 per square meter.
Program flats, although not yet able to be optimistic about this problem but it is a desire from both the government will answer the needs of residents living land.

Provision of housing programs, whether conducted by government, private and community, based on calculation experiencing shortages (backlog). In 2007 recorded a national housing backlog of 5.8 million units. So the government should at least be able to provide between 800,000 to 1.2 million housing units per year. To be able to pursue such backlog. The existence of backlog provision of decent housing, especially for low-income communities, a lot happening in the city - the big city. Construction of flats to reduce the backlog of housing, as a strategic step.

Construction of flats, the government is also seen as a tool in rejuvenating the area. As examples of flats in Jakarta Lower Dam, built at the same time as a form of rejuvenation of residential areas, due to a catastrophic fire. Rejuvenation of the region is an activity with the primary objective to increase the potential of a target area, mostly done with the development of this integrated.

The implementation of the construction of flats in an area, also a first step, from activities that support the various regional development programs. This is caused by terhuninya an apartment would make the development of a residential area. like a lot happening in the environment area apartment in Batam.

Construction of flats, after the fourth year, starting from 2004 has only reached about 30% of the original plan. The government hopes the availability of 60,000 apartment units through 2009. However, the total flats that had been built up in 2008 reached only 15,400 units.

Serious intention of the Government of Indonesia to spur construction of flats, stipulated in Presidential Decree No. 22 of 2006 on the Acceleration of Development Co-ordination Team in the Area Urban Flats. Coordinator is designated as the Coordinating Minister for Economic Affairs. By looking at the composition of membership in the Decree, should the problem of coordination is no longer an obstacle. However, in the implementation of development in the field, institutional coordination problems still occur.

B. Goal
This study aims to identify the problems of delayed implementation of the development of this program in Indonesia. So that steps can be taken further efforts to resolve the problem. Recommendations from this study is not yet final findings. Further studies are needed to find problem-solving strategies that have been identified.

C. Methodology
Identify the problems of delayed development of this program, carried out using qualitative and quantitative approaches. Qualitatively, namely by conducting policy studies and literature. Whether that has been issued by the government and private, relating to the construction of flats. The study of literature, deals with real problems that caused delays and the latest development of this program in Indonesia.

Quantitative studies conducted at three study sites, namely in flats Cokrodirjan Yogyakarta, Dam Downstream II, Jakarta and Griya Pelita Mas, Batam. Quantitative studies conducted to look into the matter of delay from the standpoint of the apartment building itself.

The total sample studied, taken at random and proportional is 143 of 986 Head of the Family, with a division of 50/300 families from Griya Pelita Mas Batam, 63/614 KK from Flat Benhil II Jakarta, Cokrodirjan Flat 30/72 households from Yogyakarta. Respondents in flats Cokrodirjan from Yogyakarta itself as one of the conditions are inhabiting Rusunawa Cokrodirjan original residents of Yogyakarta as evidenced by the ownership ID Yogyakarta. While the origin of the respondents in the Jakarta area half came from Jakarta and the other half is overseas, from outside Jakarta. Rental system - which is on sale Benhil II rise towers such conditions this. For Batam area which is the goal area there are diversity job seekers from the region of this study. However, most respondents came from the area on the island of Sumatra.

Most respondents had graduated from high school education. Because the target of a simple residential towers indeed lead to low-income communities, then the profile of education at this level is a common thing. With regard to research, people who had completed his education up to secondary stage already has the ability - the practical ability to meet living life.

Shape the profession of the respondents came from the private sector and entrepreneurs. As a general profile of the Indonesian population living mostly in the field - the field of entrepreneurship.


D. Conceptual foundation
A good development program is a program that has a value of sustainability. Or often termed as sustainable development. The definition of sustainable development, as quoted from http://id.wikipedia.org is the process of development (land, cities, businesses, communities, etc.) that principled "meet the needs of the present without compromising the needs of future generations." One factor that must be overcome to achieve sustainable development is how to repair the destruction of the environment without sacrificing the needs of economic development and social justice.

If we look at aspects of sustainable development, it will be found three fundamental aspects. Namely social, economic and environmental.

Sustainable development then subdivided into several elements. The element of sustainable development, with economic development orientation ignore sustainability of natural resources and preserve the ability of environmental carrying capacity include (Soeriaatmadja, 1995):

1. Resurrection of growth (economic)
Sustainable development orientation in the effort to overcome the problems faced by community groups who do not (yet) helpless, namely people who are still shackled by poverty. Because poverty reduces the ability of humans to be able to exploit natural resources in a sustainable manner; even otherwise has a tendency to give weight to the environment.

2. Changes in the quality of growth (economic)
Sustainable development must have a change of growth itself. Economic growth also must be able to calculate the cost of ecology. This is because economic development will not be sustainable, if it makes the availability of natural resources vulnerable.

3. Meeting the needs of human primary
Sustainable development should ensure the availability of primary human needs. Good for people who are economically empowered or not. The main requirement is the need for jobs, food availability, production and energy consumption, the provision of housing, clean water, environmental health and education and health facilities.

4. Guarantee the sustainability level of population
Sustainable development are concerned to maintain the population size, and the need for materials and energy did not exceed the capacity of ecosystem productivity where the population is flourishing. Population growth in developing countries found beyond the Government's ability to control the various needs of supporting facilities and infrastructure, so that they appear wild slums and that can lead to lower quality of life.

5. Preservation and enhancement of natural resources essential
Natural resources are mainly concerned with agriculture became one of the concentration of sustainable development. This is mainly related to the availability of natural resources for future generations.

6. Reorienting technology and risk management
The technology in accordance with sustainable development, is an environmentally friendly technologies and sources or can be developed

7. The combination of ecological considerations and economic considerations in decision making processes
Decision making in sustainable development, placing economic considerations with ecology in the process. Especially for policy and strategy, planning or design and construction of a development activity.

E. Analysis
1. Party Role
In the operation of apartment building there are three parties that play a role. The first is the builder, apartment buildings and the environment itself as well as residents. Third parties have elements and factors - factors inhibiting the development of this program implementation.

Party builder flats broadly divided into two. That is from government and private. From the government side, divided into two: central agencies funded by the state budget. As the Ministry of Public Housing and Public Works Department. Local agencies that use both at the provincial budget and the County / City.

Party builder that comes from the private sector, can also be divided into two. That is the part of the semi-government (State / National / Public Corporation) and the developer. Semi-government agency such as the PT Jamsostek, Perum Perumnas, Batam Authority Board. From private parties such as PT Prime Gate Prima Tbk, PT Primaland Internusa, PT Anggana, PT Rajawali Core Indonesia, etc..

Flats have the same meaning with the apartment. But for Indonesian community purport flats more often leads to the residential units designated for low-income communities. While the apartment is more aimed at the residential flats for middle and high income people.

Flats on the basis of ownership is divided into three types, namely the rental system, rental property and - courtesy. Based on the high or the amount of floor-rise flats were divided into low, medium and high. Based on the designation of apartment residents were divided into simple, intermediate and luxury (intermediate and luxury apartments).

Flats definition according to Law No. 16 of 1985 About the House flats, is building high rise building built in an environment, which is divided into sections which are structured functionally or veritikal in the horizontal direction and is a unit, each unit can be owned and used separately, particularly for shelter, equipped with the part-joint, shared objects and the ground-joint.

Residents, especially the towers is simple, has several characteristics. Residents can come from low-income communities originating from the location of population displacement (relocation). Group of residents who come from the worker / employee of a company / institution. Another group of residents are students.






















Table 1.
Parties Contribute to the implementation of Housing
 
 

















2. Emerging Issues
The problem of delay, the apartment building programs that have been announced by the government, is a combination of constraints from the three key elements.

From the element builder, the main factor was the delay in construction of flats with limited budgets. 1000 development program is estimated by Menpera towers to cost $ 50 trillion rupiah. If the program is planned to implemented in the period of 5 years, the large funds required to build 1,000 towers it is 10 trillion dollars per year. Project construction is very heavy towers if only relying on the state budget and local budget.

As an illustration, the budget allocation through the budget managed by DG Cipta Karya in the year 2007 amounted to 427 billion rupiah. Used to build 45 twinblok Rusunawa. This budget allocation has only reached less than 5% in order to achieve development targets 200 towers a year. While the budget of the region, we take the example of Jakarta, in 2006 budgeted 246.12 billion rupiah.

Problems associated with the builder handover, is coordination between central and local parties. Or from the builder to the receiver or manager. As disclosed Deputy Assistant Housing Provision Kemenpera Paul Marpaung (Kompas Friday, September 5, 2008) triggered the handover delay rules overlap between central and local governments. The problems that have not been good coordination is a problem that appears in the construction of flats.

With the high price of land in urban areas, and also providing simple towers are more directed to the MBR, the supply of land becomes an obligation for the government as the servant of the people. Use of land to build towers, requires a strong commitment from landowners. Even needed a stronger bond to encourage the provision of land. The delay in development programs towers one main factor is due to difficulties in finding land that is representative.

Other problems that hamper the construction of towers is the licensing. A late exit permit will delay the development process that resulted in losses for the developer. This problem can be derived from the institution issuing the permit, the system of rules or the actors who play in it.

The delay in development programs towers, also somewhat influenced by not terhuninya building towers that already exist. The problem that often become obstacles of building towers is the infrastructure that lie fallow due to delays the process of handover from the builder to the manager.

From the results of research on Infrastructure towers at three locations on the cleanliness of public space, it was discovered the following. The cleanliness of public spaces according to the manager at the Griya Pelita Mas and Flat Cokrodirjan enough. By reason of residents and managers work together to maintain environmental hygiene. While in Flat Benhil II confessed clean, with the same reason.












        




Table 2.
Cleanliness Flat
 
 




Based on data collected through questionnaires, the third location of the study considers that the environmental quality of their apartment quite clean. Although found in cases of dissatisfaction in some individuals of the quality of their environmental cleanliness. In the Flat Benhil II, for instance, there is dirt - dirt garbage, which turned out to community residents flats are still considered within the limits of reasonableness.

Provision of clean water in the apartment, still is an issue that needs to look for alternatives in its provision. From the results of the study found the likelihood that drinking water quality is poor. As many as 30% of residents feel less towers with clean water services within the towers. Meanwhile, residents who are satisfied with the service water towers is 17%.

Flat condition Cokrodirjan, supplying clean water are still apprehensive. Residents expressed his opinion that the water is very dirty, unpleasant taste when cooked, yellow water, because they can not be consumed or less good for health, and other bad things. In the Flat Benhil II residents revealed that the water tariff should not be too expensive, sometimes die when it is needed, less clean and sometimes no water, turbid water occasionally, until the need to be filtered first.










Table 3.
Flat Water Conditions
 













Likewise, the dirty water treatment, was still unable to satisfy occupants towers. Respondents who felt still plagued with dirty water treatment there are as many as 28% while that was quite satisfied with dirty water treatment service that is only 12% only. From here we can see that in fact both clean and dirty water to be part of the problem of supplying towers. Things - things that complained of by residents associated with strong odors, leaks, and clogged by garbage.

Social activities are commonly used residents socialize with other residents, in Flat Cokrodirjan is in Arisan mothers - mothers, meet regularly every month, community centers, neighborhood health center, social gathering, taking jimpitan. Activities conducted in a building that can be used together with other communities and office towers. Residents Benhil II using Flat Hall, Multipurpose Room & Garden, Field Sports, Mosque Complex Flats as a place to socialize them. While Citizens Griya Pelita Mas use sports field, houses, roads, and places of worship.







The need for places of worship are still not satisfactory occupant towers. As one social facilities, houses of worship become part should be provided to ensure the environmental quality of towers. From the research, there are still citizens of towers that have not found satisfaction in performing their worship in the towers, although there are also people who already feel the fulfillment of the need for places of worship. Comparison of satisfied and not satisfied is 2 compared to 3



















Table 3.
Flat Facilities
 
 




Lack of provision of health clinics to ensure the citizens of towers is also one part of the problem of supplying towers. Residents describe the condition of health facilities in the absence of medical practices and health services, relying on a nearby clinic. Yet the holding center in towers to help people.

Conference facilities which became the main room of meetings between residents still felt lacking. The tendency to feel a lack of conference facilities is felt in all three study sites, it is quite alarming given the importance of this facility.

Playground facilities for children - children are still less by placing only 10% of residents who feel that providing a place to play good and 41% feel less. This allows us to see that attention to children - child resident towers have become a priority the development and management of flats.

The condition is more severe is the problem of library provision, as part of service to the community about the information and data, the existence of libraries in the towers in appalling condition. 72% of citizens feel the need for the existence of the library for them.

Open space or park is also a need for public facilities. From the research found that the need for open space or park for residents felt less towers that is equal to 34%. Meanwhile, those who consider that the requirement had been fulfilled only 7% only.

As for the provision of sports facilities were already being felt sufficient existence, residents who love the sport has been to utilize existing facilities in the vicinity of their residential towers. Although not all forms of sports games are embodied, but existing facilities can already be used.










Table 4.
Flat Facilities
 
 








Shopping facilities that already exist within the towers, mewadai enough for the needs of towers to buy their daily needs - today.

Provision of facilities for the anticipation of fire was also not provided with the best, from field observation and tally the questionnaire, was found less unprepared flats on the fire hazard.

From the results of research on the identification Paying Ability and willingness Medium Low-Income Communities (Widaningrum, 2007), found that only in the apartment just type 21 low-income communities have a reasonable ability to pay. That is equal to 77% of respondents, with a willingness to pay by 30%. As for unit type 36 percent repayment capacity dropped dramatically to 43% with a willingness to pay is only 5%.

Still from the same study conducted in Bandung Rusunawa Castle, stated that the ability to pay the occupants in the range of Rp. 75.000,00 - Rp. 450,000.00 per month. Yet when compared with Permenpera no. 07 years 2007 to the target group III the lowest monthly cost is calculated by Rp. 393,750.00 in the first two months and increased to Rp. 559,196.00 in the third. So that has been granted government subsidies, have not achieved the ability to pay people, including the MBR.

To build an apartment based on the calculation Permenpera no. 07 of 2007 is in the price range perunit Rp.125.009.359, 00. This is a later by the government strived to create a pattern of cross subsidies. Cross-subsidy is done by dividing into three groups targeted by pay-per-unit count that is equal to USD 75,000,000.00, USD 110,000,000.00 and USD. 144,000,000.00.

The constraints that arise from the occupants towers, causing delays development of this program that is associated with occupant obligation to pay monthly expenses (rent, if any). Based on the research found that the cost or the money to be paid regularly to the managers tend to be considered expensive by the occupants who are in Griya Pelita Mas, Batam. ± 40% of respondents answered expensive monthly fee.

















Table 5.
Rental Costs
 
















Reason residents towers, which considers the cost of a monthly routine that must be paid to expensive manager, are among others: costs are not comparable with monthly income, which could lease only those high income; Not according to the room facilities that are open with cement floor; less fitted to the poor economy down; hard to earn money while the price of expensive needs, their salary can not be saved anymore, not in accordance with the present life of another crisis, a small but expensive.

As for the reason of less expensive is: Compared to other (another rental residential) towers better facilities; compared to other places is not high enough, compared with less expensive to rent a private home.
While a reasonably assume that the costs are still reasonable grounds, is the ability of all residents; still affordable for the economically weak, fair to people who are poor, because according to income and the appropriate market

Costs paid in addition to regular monthly rents are: to Flat Cokrodirjan Yogyakarta electricity, water, garbage, administration, jimpitan / ronda, fine. To Benhil II Jakarta Flats equipment maintenance, management in the Flats, PAM, Electricity, Sanitation and General Services. In Griya Pelita Mas Batam, the cost used for security, cleanliness boarding house payment, child emergency boarding fees, and clean water.

Another problem which makes the development program does not reach its goals due to the transfer of ownership. As an example the case of exposure is disclosed in the following research results.

In Griya Pelita Mas developers are not and need not be aware of any transfer of property rights to others. While in Flat Cokrodirjan because the system only rental and a low price, then the minimal transfer of rights to inhabit, plus a short rental period is only 3 years. In the Flat Benhil II occupancy already bought, the transfer of ownership is difficult monitored. Where the manager aware of any transfer of ownership.







Table 5.
Rental Costs
 
















In the Flat Cokrodirjan and Griya Pelita Mas, the manager felt not aware of any transfer of property rights to others. The transfer of property rights more pronounced in the Griya Pelita Mas and towers Benhil II, this is caused by residential status and / or price of a relatively high occupancy. Flat Residents Benhil II largely aware of any transfer of ownership.

Culture is changing lives is also a factor for the reluctance of (prospective) inhabitants to live in the towers. MBR which has social force more powerful than other classes of society, requires a more communal space. This pattern is somewhat less can be found in the towers. In addition, the tendency to add space as needed, it is difficult to accommodate the massive structure towers. For example residents desire to keep animals as entertainment or less can be accommodated.

However residents can still do the adaptation in the towers. From research on inter-residential settings, found that residents feel in good enough condition. However, the condition complained of is about the inhabitants of the selfish, the emergence of individualistic attitudes, laundry room is less light,

In the life lived in the towers also encountered cases of social conflict among fellow residents. But the level of conflict experienced by still within reasonable limits. There are towers of 21% residents who have experienced social conflict. But in general, still in a harmonious situation.

Although the social conditions in a state of harmony but residents felt the towers were in need of supervision of their daily lives. This raises a thought symptom of a need for a better atmosphere in terms of living together in flats. The trend worries social conflict arises in citizen towers can be seen from the range of magnitude answer to residents who require supervision in their lives in the apartment that is equal to 61% of respondents.

In addition, there is still one more problem, namely the construction of towers located in the suburbs resulted in a sense kept away from work for the MBR. Especially for the occupants of the towers is a community affected by the relocation. This reason a lot of reluctance to appear.

Map of the problem of delay towers development programs nationwide, from parties that play a role in the operation of towers reflected in the following table.






































Table 6.
Problems of Development Delay
 
 


















































Conclusions and Recommendations

The conclusion of this research is the identification of problems, which caused delays in implementation of the development of this program in Indonesia. Problems such as set forth in Table 6. Is a combination of problems facing the three parties that play a role in the operation of towers.

If the issue is reviewed using the theory of glasses sustainable program implementation, it can be made a development scheme as follows.






















Table 7.
Flat and Sustainable Development
 
 
































The builder should be promoting change the quality of growth. By building towers of matter and energy-efficient, thus the problems associated with limited budgets will be more suppressed. Likewise, the cost for maintenance of infrastructure and the ingredients. In addition, by promoting renewable materials will make the towers a national development project environmentally friendly. It can be applied in the selection of building structures, building siding, doors and window frames and other materials.

Government as initiator of the construction of towers need to take action, to ensure the sustainability level of population. This is about the certainty of subsistence, clothing - food - board - health - education. By setting a budget pro on meeting basic needs, then it is likely illegal MBR to inhabit the area will be reduced and can be overcome. So that area - an area illegally occupied by the MBR can be used to develop the towers.

The low coordination and licensing constraints, an issue that can be overcome by providing a common understanding of development policies relating to the ideal. With emphasis on the principles of ecological considerations - economics in decision-making, it is expected that there is equality principle in making decisions. The owner of the area, builders towers, licensors will agree that play a role in building the towers, in accordance with the principles of nature conservation, preservation of environmental quality and capability. So the development program towers have a value of sustainability.

The problem faced by building towers and the environment associated with damage to infrastructure, lack of synchronization of environmental infrastructure and building and selling price of a house is expensive, requires a solution related to the preservation and enhancement of natural resources and fundamental reorientation of technology and risk control. This solution relates to the use of local potential in which the towers were built. By calculating the ecological burden of social-economic-development due to towers, the selection of the technology used and the anticipation of building damage.

The problem faced by residents (or potential) related to the routine costs that must be removed, the culture and feelings stay away from work (income) can be solved by the model attempted revival of growth and fulfillment of primary needs of man. This solution is applied to the MBR as prospective residents since the beginning of the process. Open employment with the existence of towers. For example, by providing a means of shopping for a place of business. Or open up opportunities and business opportunities from other sectors.

Measures proposed in the above efforts, in resolving the problem of delay towers development programs, still require further study, so find a correct solution and tested.
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