Wednesday, 18 December 2013

Gap Index of Drinking Water Sector of Climate Change

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[Author ] Yudha P. HESTON 1)

 

Abstract

 

Housing provision needs to take into account the impacts of climate change, especially for the water supply sector. Communities in settlements both in metropolitan and rural areas need to take adaptation action from planning, operation, development and evaluation. Integration of adaptation strategies needed to ensure public resources wisely invested. Research has done to find the measures of contextual adaptation capacity gap areas, which need to be improved. Community adaptation theory approach is used to identify the factors related to housing conditions in adapting to climate change. Object of the study group was divided into two levels, namely the individual and institution. Research sites in two locations: Kupang which represent areas of water shortage and Palembang which represent areas of water abundance. To improve the index performance in Palembang that has abundant water, namely the development of local wisdom. Current value of local wisdom in water management, has not been optimized, so it needs to be administered using a socialization program or local cultural context. Also required the technology implementation to solve water shortages in times of flooding along Musi river. Optimizing community-based programs benefits can be done by way of managing pipelines to homes. Provision of clean water access to sectors that have the potential to increase revenue in Kupang, is one way of improving index performance. Need to ensure the quality, quantity, continuity of water services strategic sectors such as trade, hotel, restaurant and industry. Information dissemination needs to be done to improve performance readiness index. In addition it is necessary to provide guidance to company, which runs a water refill business.

 

Keywords: drinking water, index, adaptation

 

1.     INTRODUCTION


Indonesia has a vulnerability to climate change disaster. Based on Indosaster study results, still Indonesia is not ready to deal with large and medium -scale disasters (Lassa. J , 2006). Another result in the study, state that climate change could trigger climate instability and lead to emergence floods, droughts, cyclones, landslides threat. The threat needs disaster management efforts.

Climate variability and change phenomenon as global warming result, to be one of the most important challenge today (Surmaini , 2010). Anthropogenic factors, especially industrial rapid increase activities have significantly triggered global warming incident. Climate change may have an impact on frequency and intensity increase in the of extreme weather events, changing rainfall patterns, rising temperatures and sea levels .

Climate change is a long process and has high complexity nature, making it difficult to predict precisely. Adaptation effort is a necessary thing, because climate that change is difficult to return to the initial condition. Global climate change scale need to be transformed on local context , associated with economic, social, political, geographic and local environment response. Vulnerability and adaptive conditions also needs to be translated in local context. Vulnerability and adaptive capacity local context obtained from socio - ecological relationships, level of income, completion patterns, infrastructure, ecosystems, health, gender, political participation and individual habits.

Climate change adaptation is divided into three groups (Klein, et.al , 1997 in Puspita , N , 2010)that is: level of strategy, populations and individuals. Strategy level related to climate change regulations development and implementation. At the population level, adaptation purpose is to protect or prevent. At the individual level, adaptation purpose is at behavioral adjustments that aims to resolve the hazard exposure. Adaptive capacity assessment can be done by calculating urban disaster adaptive capacity. The higher village adaptive capacity, more resistant in face of disaster.

Adaptability based on research (Effendi, 2012) is equal with knowledge, public education and social welfare level. Community can have good adaptability when having good welfare levels. Knowledge and wellfare levels of community can raise health awareness.

Provision of drinking water management related to climate change, can be seen as a form of institutional services to public , where vulnerability variable as ideal service standards compared with achievements of existing services .

Problem


Based on introduction, this research has done to address the following issues: How is vulnerability indicators in adaptive capacity index, of water sector climate change preparedness performance gap?

Purpose and Benefits


The first study purpose is to find determinant factor of capacity gaps related to climate change adaptation, community and water sector. Second, is to make comparison formulation of water sector climate change vulnerability index, which consist of sensitivity, exposure and adaptive capacity factor in Palembang and Kupang.

Benefits of research is to provide stakeholders strategic efforts, at sociological implications of water sector climate change, optimal adaptation measures that can be prioritized for communities, facing water problems due to climate change.

Research Design


Quantitative approach is used to provide an factors related overview to climate change vulnerability and adaptive capacity, for public in water sector. This Approach also used to determine ratio between region with a history of abundant water (Palembang) compared with areas with a history of water lack (Kupang).

The study was conducted by looking at the vulnerability gap performance indicators, for adaptive capacity readiness index, to community drinking water sector climate change. This is necessary, in order to improve water service efforts, climate change-related research sites.

Qualitative methods based on interviews with stakeholders in research location, is used to explain the phenomenon that appears in quantitative research.

2.     LITERATURE REVIEW


(Pasaribu, 2008) The increase of CO2 concentration in atmosphere which causes  greenhouse gasses effect, has increased the earth average temperature. This temperature increase causes wind patterns changes, ocean and lake water evaporation, which then causes pattern and intensity changes of rainfall. Climate change could have a negative impact on global economy. The negative impact of climate change is mainly felt by developing countries.

Research related to climate change vulnerability as stated Turner et al. (2003) in (A.Tahir, 2009) explains that vulnerability (V) is overlay function of exposure (E), sensitivity (S), and adaptive capacity (AC), and expressed in mathematical form by Metzger et al., (2006 ) as follows: V = f ( E , S , AC ) ...........( 1 )

Based on field research (Balai Litbang Sosekling Bidang Permukiman in 2012) with the mathematical formulation described vulnerability Index (V = f S, E, AC) is as follows :

With a description of each variable, the variable S is defined as follows:

S= 50 PrA + 37,9 KP + 12,1 M...........( 2 )

Where, PRA: daily behaviour water usage, KP: programs agreement and clean water support policies, M: clean water benefits.

Variable E is defined as follows :

E= 50 PAL + 50 PeAL...........( 3 )

Where, PAL: water use in scarce season (individual) , PeAL: water management in scarce season water (community)

AC variable defined as follows :

AC= 16,67 Pt + 16,93 Ps + 16,4 PI + 9,4 J + 8,22 KI + 8,16 C + 7,66 KL + 11,83 CAP + 4,73 P...........( 4 )

Where, Pt: Knowledge, Ps: Perception, Pl: Behavior, J: Networking , KI: information availability of, C: channel, KL: Local knowledge, CAP: community action plan, P: Leadership.

Rating score each parameter, using sources Arctic Water Resource Vulnerability Index, divided into 3 categories:

Table 1. Scale Parameter

Parameter
Size
High Vulnerable
0,00 – 0,33
Moderate Vulnerable
0,34 – 0,66
High Resilient
0,67 – 1,00

 


3.     METHODology


   The study was conducted by using basic theory related to incorporation of community preparedness and vulnerability to climate change. Related readiness group theory divides the population into 3 levels, namely the individual, community and institution. Theory of climate change -related vulnerability indicator group divided into 3 parts, namely adaptive capacity, exposure and sensitivity.

                Gap analysis is needed here to describe the gap between attribute performance with the attributes expectation. Attributes measured in vulnerability assessment compared with ideal value to ideal service limit.

 

Location and Research Period


                Indexes related explanations tracked by using quantitative and qualitative research, with questionnaires and conducted interviews to several key stakeholders. They which have the information availability is considered sufficient to explain related indices phenomena.

                The research was conducted in February to November of 2012, in Palembang (Seberang Ulu 1, which consists of three villages : ¾, 15 and 5 Ulu), and in Kupang (Kelapa Lima district, which consists of three villages: Oesapa , West Oesapa, and Lasiana).

                Palembang is provincial capital, largest city and economic hub of social activity in South Sumatra. Its area is of 400.61 km2. Topography of Palembang, mostly lowlands with an average altitude of 4-12 meters above sea level, with a composition of 48 % of land that is not waterlogged, flooded land 15 % and 35 % seasonally waterlogged soils continuously throughout the season. Seberang Ulu and Seberang Ilir has a different related topography character. Seberang Ulu region generally have relatively flat topography and partly with the original soil under the surface of maximum tidal river Musi. Across the region Seberang Ilir topography variation from 4m to 20m height above sea level which consists of valleys and steep topography there. Initial river function in Palembang is as a transportation means, but now it is experiencing changes as a function of drainage and flood control.

                Clean water for Palembang people mostly provided by PDAM Tirta Musi and others utilize surface water such as river water, pond or swamp. Palembang city resident who served with clean water increased from 43.18 % ( 2003) to ± 80 % (2009 ) as many as 1,073,267 people, with a target service in 2012, is expected to serve 95 % of Palembang population.

                Kupang city has an area of ​​165.3 km2 consists of 6 districts. Topography Kupang is the highest area above sea level in the south 100-350 meters. While the lowest area above sea level on the northern slope of 0-50 meters with a 15 percent rate. The city population of Kupang (2012) is 336 239 inhabitants. With a population density of 2,034 per km2. Description and source of household Drinking Water in 2010 which has its own drinking water facilities by 49.98 percent .

Table 2. ParameterPercentage of Households by Drinking Water Facilities

Drinking Water Facilities
%
Private 
49,98
Community
45,93
Public
3.84
Not available
0,25
Total
100,00

Sources: Welfare Indicators Kupang

Table 3. Percentage of Households by Source of Drinking Water

Drinking water resources
%
Bottled water
10,22
Water refill
3,98
piped meter
42,24
Retail tap
4,92
pump
2,97
Protected wells
22,62
Not Shielded wells
7,15
Shielded Springs
0,87
Not Shielded Springs
0,87
Others
4,16
Total
100,00

Sources: Welfare Indicators Kupang

Data Collecting


            Data was collected through questionnaires. Questionnaires distributed to a number of respondents to determine samples number required (representation of a population that will be mapped). Determination of samples number should consider homogeneity and heterogeneity of population.

                Literature study was done by collecting a variety of secondary data from various sources (books , journals, magazines, maps, newspapers, documents, research reports, data sources from the internet, etc.).

                In-depth interviews were conducted in a quiet, familiar situations. Interviews can be started from the things that light (introduction), insensitive, and not necessarily sequentially so that the informant did not mind answering.

                Field observations made ​​through direct observation to be mapped. In implementing field observations accompanied by representatives from the community along with a professional master of environmental management.

Population


                Quantitative research: population to determine the community readiness represented by the board of RT, RW and administrators group in society. With justification that they are the main object and subject, in the implementation of adaptation models, that can act as driving force for all citizens in the region. The population has also seen a lot of information , in-depth strategic and social and cultural processes that occur in a community, about the phenomenon under study. Qualitative research: to determine the readiness of the population represented by the head of the district, the board of NGOs working in the field of water.

Samples


                Questioner divided into two types of community leaders and family heads .1 ) Criteria for selecting community leaders in the RT and RW defined by the following inclusion criteria, ie:

( a. ) The Board region at RT until RW with a minimum term of 1 year

( b. ) Residing in the research area and are willing to be the research subject.

( c. ) At least 20 years old.

Samples amount that meet the criteria for inclusion in the study, were 30 people in each area.

2 ) The criteria for selecting individual inclusion criteria, namely :

( a. ) One of the family members who are considered to represent

( d. ) Residing in the research area and are willing to be the research object.

( b. ) At least 20 years old.

Samples amount using the following formula (Sastorasmoro and Ismael, 2004 in Balai, 2012).

N =            ...........( 5 )  

Description :

( a. ) P = proportion of searched state: socio-economic involvement of 76.3 % for community participation in water resources management (Syahrani , et al 2004 in Balai 2012)

( b. ) d = desired level of absolute accuracy ( 0.07 )

( c. ) α = level of significance ( 0.05 )

( d. ) Q = ( 1 - P ) , so if P = 1-.763 = 0.237

Based on the above provisions , then the sample size in this study was: 142 people per city.

                Qualitative research to explain the quantitative figures, does not concern on the number of samples, informants can be a little or lot depending on whether appropriate key informants as well as the diversity and phenomenon complexity of study. In collecting the data, the number of samples used is the range between 4-10 informants to see if the data is already saturated. if the sample is less than 10 has reached the saturation point, researchers stop sample search. With regard data fulfill and adjusted to the researchers ability ( Moleong, 2004 ).

Data Analysis


                Data were analyzed by compiling into the matrix, index found the actual number of questionnaires. This was followed by finding the difference between ideal boundary services minus the actual numerical values​. Actual figures inserted into percentage figures for ease of analysis. Wanted percentage difference between ideal service reduced the actual number percentage. Index:

I=   ...........( 6 )

Measurement of index formula ( IWMI , 2009)

 

                The next step is to formulate a (3) priority variable, and (3) support variables in each study site . Variables found the explanation sought through qualitative research, both from the literature as well as primary data sources such as interviews.

                Qualitative analysis is done by developing a quantitative research ideographic related phenomena and social reality. Development of the theory of empiri formed through various phenomena or cases studied. The resulting theory will gain a strong foothold on reality and is contextual.

 

4.     RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Actual figures obtained from the indicator with 3-15 questions in the questionnaire , with the following indicator explanation.

Ø  Knowledge: the ability of respondents to answer everything about community readiness in addressing availabilty changes in water resources due to climate change.

Ø  Perception: support respondent to give a positive or negative response to community readiness in addressing availability changes of water resources due to climate change

Ø  Behavior: The public habit or act in everyday life related to community readiness, to face change problems in water resources due to climate change. It will be assessed from the behavior of people in water retrench for daily needs.

Ø  Conduct daily water use: The habit or act of public in everyday life related to community readiness in use of water to prevent water shortages occurrence.

Ø  Conduct water use season when water is scarce: the habit or act of family members related to family preparedness in face of scarce water season.

Ø  water use behavior: the behavior or actions related to water use in family life to improve socio- economic status .

Ø  Local Wisdom: all forms of knowledge, belief, understanding, or insight as well as custom or ethics that guide human behavior in conserving water resources .

Ø  Water management in water-scarce season: habits or actions related to community preparedness in face of scarce water season .

Ø  Community involvement in organizations: community participation in project provision of clean water and sanitation services .

Ø  Leadership: the art of activity or influence others to cooperate based on person's ability to guide others in achieving desired goals of the group.

Ø  The existence of organizations: the organization presence in a special area set up to regulate water availability in community .

Ø  Network: the efforts of an institution in community to establish cooperative relationships with other agencies.

Ø  Availability of information: The efforts of an institution to obtain information related to provision of clean water.

Ø  Channel Communications: Media availability is facilitated by an institution engaged in provision of clean water in order for a community to deliver clean water issues in the region.

Ø  Agreements Program and Policy Support: The existence of a formula and related activities deal with a source of clean water agencies.

Ø  Benefits: The availability of clean water facilities on community created by an agency.

Ø  Answers to indicators other than education , income and employment converted to numbers range from 0 to 100 to facilitate the analysis process . The results can be seen in the table 4, the figures were converted into percentage in accordance with the primary data.

Table 4. Actual Figure

No
Indicator
Palembang
Kupang
%
Palembang
%
Kupang
Adaptive capacity (AC)
1
Education
3,35
3,77
55,46
62,42
2
Income
2.304.031
2.354.575
77,97
79,68
3
Job
4,44
4,24
55,41
52,91
4
Knowledge
65,56
63,91
63,19
61,60
5
Behaviour 
61,67
67,32
60,41
65,95
6
Local wisdom
0
67,78
0,00
74,31
7
Community involvement
23,33
95
18,46
75,17
8
Leadership
63
78,33
54,07
67,23
9
Network
30
66,77
29,70
66,10
10
Information availability
50
61,09
38,52
47,06
11
Channel
40
71,43
33,77
60,31
12
Organization availability
20
91,2
15,36
70,06
Exposure (E)
 
 
14
Water shortage management at individual level
48,35
47,31
68,06
66,60
15
Water shortage management at territorial level
0
47,77
0,00
50,94
Sensitivity (S)
 
 
17
Daily water use behaviour
66
60
78,92
71,75
18
Program agreement
51,21
71,34
40,83
56,88
19
Benefit
0
62,5
0,00
67,09

                Ideal number minus ideal limit equal with the gap value (Table 4).

Table 4. Gap

No
Indicator
Ideal level
Palembang
Kupang
% Palembang
% Kupang
Adaptive capacity (AC)
1
Education
 4,53
2,69
2,27
44,54
37,58
2
Income
 2.216.341
651.090,33
600.546,33
22,03
20,32
3
Job
 6,01
3,57
3,77
44,59
47,09
4
Knowledge
 77,81
38,19
39,84
36,81
38,40
5
Behaviour 
 76,56
40,41
34,76
39,59
34,05
6
Local wisdom
 68,41
91,21
23,43
100,00
25,69
7
Community involvement
 94,78
103,04
31,37
81,54
24,83
8
Leadership
 87,38
53,51
38,18
45,93
32,77
9
Network
 75,76
71,01tas
34,24
70,30
33,90
10
Information availability
 97,36
79,81
68,72
61,48
52,94
11
Channel
 88,83
78,44
47,01
66,23
39,69
12
Organization availability
 97,63
110,17
38,97
84,64
29,94
Exposure (E)
 
 
 
14
Water shortage management at individual level
 53,28
 22,69
23,73
31,94
33,40
15
Water shortage management at territorial level
 70,33
93,77
46,00
100,00
49,06
Sensitivity (S)
 
 
 
17
Daily water use behaviour
 62,72
17,63
23,63
21,08
28,25
18
Program agreement
 94,07
74,22
54,09
59,17
43,12
19
Benefit
 69,87
93,16
30,66
100,00
32,91

 

From the results of a calculation in Palembang can be seen that there are three indicators that need to get attention, in order to services improve, namely: local knowledge, management of scarce water season, and program existence benefits. While the next 3 indicators that can be considered for further development is availability of relevant organizations, community involvement, and networking.

From the results of a calculation in Kupang can be seen that there are three indicators that need to get attention, in order to service improve that is related to: employment, availability of information, the management of scarce water season. 3 indicators for development that can be considered further in Kupang related to program agreement, channel, and knowledge.

 

Gap from the ideal limit will get the result as in grafik 1 and 2.

 


 

 


 

Discussion


Palembang


(6) Local wisdom (Diem, A. , 2012)

Local wisdom of  wood stage housing form, which is designed to be able to adapt geographical conditions swampy wet and hot temperatures. The building houses a stage adaptation of the rain and tide conditions, especially in the region around the river. Home made form high in anticipation of the hot temperatures. Selected wood material resistant to water immersion. Trust is the number of steps, showing a desire to get a blessing for the family, because there is a belief if an even number of stairs then residents will get a lot of trouble. Number of steps in a terrace house also shows social class, who were divided into three groups. The higher steps number, more higher class that can be assembled in it. Ventilation in every home made ​​a lot, and each home prepared crock in front of  house to keep clean water, which is found in households in Palembang. This shows the readiness of citizens to be able to have their own bin (not together) for each household. Densely populated settlements on riverbanks, using direct water to wash clothes, dishes and bathing. The main water source community around the river is flowing river water.

(15) Water shortage management at territorial level

Water problems in some areas impassable Musi river have ebb and flow, if tide is a lot than trash left on riverbank. Plus, if there was a flood threatens the existence of the house residents (Musi River Overflowing Again Compass - March 1, 2006 ). Although relatively raw water is available both in dry and rainy season.

                Water they obtained in several ways, namely by buying from water vendors, including refill water, collect water and carry out simple processing. Efforts to overcome clean water scarcity can be proved by the discovery of drums and jars on patio citizens, namely rain still expected to meet needs of clean water. When it rained, water is murky Musi precipitated with alum.

(19) Benefit

                Management and improvement of water quality from taps is done by adding the house conection (SR) and main channel of taps. Most people already have a house connection each of taps. However, there are areas which are found also got SANIMAS program and use water collectively.

                Program construction of public facilities such as toilets plus of course SANIMAS built on land owned by the Palembang. Informal sector work, MCK SANIMAS, the PNPM, help from pawnshops for road and bridge capital.

Kupang

(3) Job

                When observed by Gross Regional Domestic Product in 2011, which shows most of the revenues obtained from Kupang city services sector, trade, hotels and restaurants, where these sectors are in need of drinking water clean security. In water supply in Kupang can not rely on taps, to meet adequacy, through a variety of ways, namely: buy water tanks, water gallons or using borehole. To meet the water needs of corporate offices, hotels, and a domestic house hold requirements, many of which use tank water consumption.

Table 5. Kupang revenue

SECTOR
Year
2011
RUPIAH (million)
%
Agriculture
104.416
4,2
Mining
36.975
1,49
Processing industry
66.584
2,68
Electricity and water supply
21.491
0,86
Building
259.578
10,44
Trade, hotel, restaurant
714.117
28,72
Transportation / communication
397.788
16
Bank / finance
143.304
5,76
Service
742.506
29,86
TOTAL
2.486.759
100

 

(10) Information Availability

                As part of  water provision, made ​​from the institution to deliver information services provider to consumers, including information from the government to the public. Some of the information that can be conveyed related programs: PDAM through the piping system , but still about 10 % are using a direct connection to the house. KSM PAMSIMAS, using a tank filled water flow taps and boreholes. This work is done so that there is reduction in cost to meet the needs of the community water supply so that the load can be minimized. KSM PAMSIMAS success in community-based water supply programs such as PNPM - P2KP that include clean water issues in the environmental aspects , through the use of the tank system with piping method SR (House Connection). Management of the water tank. Source water obtained from wells drilled tank which is then run through a private business. Ownership of water sources as a privately owned gold fields for the local community and is a very profitable business. Related information management boreholes privately owned. Management of water gallons for drinking water, but in quality, raw water , the tools used and the process must not be ascertained in accordance with health standards.

(15)Water shortage management at territorial level

Water crisis in Kupang can occur throughout the year, but when dry season decrease water flow reaches 30 % on sources of spring water, such as rivers, wells, ponds, etc. , while the rainy season when water is quite abundant even frequent flooding due to conditions geographical and soil structure is not solid and hollow, so that water in highlands and can not be saved down low flatness and then thrown into the sea but the season when water quality has decreased.

 

5.     CONCLUSION


To improve the index performance in Palembang that has abundant water, namely the development of local wisdom. Current value of local wisdom in water management, has not been optimized, so it needs to be administered using a socialization program or local cultural context. Also required the technology implementation to solve water shortages in times of flooding along Musi river. Optimizing community-based programs benefits can be done by way of managing pipelines to homes.

Provision of clean water access to sectors that have the potential to increase revenue in Kupang, is one way of improving index performance. Need to ensure the quality, quantity, continuity of water services strategic sectors such as trade, hotel, restaurant and industry. Information dissemination needs to be done to improve performance readiness index. In addition it is necessary to provide guidance to company, which runs a water refill business.

 

6.     REFERENCES


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Puspita. Norma, Budhi Setiawan, dan Sarino, 2010, Kajian kerentanan infrastruktur kota terhadap dampak perubahan iklim (studi kasus bangunan sekolah SMPN/SMAN/SMKN Kota Palembang), Prosiding konferensi nasional Pascasarjana Teknik Sipil (KNPTS 2010) Bandung, 26 Mei 2010, ISBN 978-979-1622-5-4

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