telah dipresentasikan dalam ICRD ke 3 di Balaikota Semarang
Dimas Hastama Nugraha1, Yudha Pracastino Heston1, Citra Widyasani Surya Putri1
1Researcher Research and Development Agency, Ministry of Public Works and Housing
Yogyakarta, Republic of Indonesia
Email : email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
Petogogan Row Village is a DKI Jakarta government’s program to revitalize slum area. This research was conducted to evaluate post occupancy of Petogogan Row Village by using Product Quality theory by Garvin (1987), namely 1) Performance, 2) Features, 3) Reliability, 4) Conformance, 5) Durability, 6) Serviceability, 7) Aesthetics and 8) Perceived Quality. Research objects were citizen of Petogogan Row Village consisted of 40 respondents. Evaluation result suggested that Petogogan Row Village at performance dimension is at proper-use level, in Features dimension there is satisfaction on current houses’ model, reliability dimension perceived by the row village’s residents is at quite good level, no problem at aesthetics dimension regarding the available building however aesthetics problem arose because of the residents’ behavior, durability dimension discovered that current residents have plan to stay even more than 20 years, this indicates the success of this aspect. Serviceability of Petogogan Row houses, from the research result is good, and able to show easiness of product quality. Generally conformance dimension has been in accordance with the specification required by the consumers. From perceived quality dimension up to research result the ability of Petogogan Row Village has been good, but still needs to be conducted a research with a longer period. Generally Petogogan Row Village has suggested a good quality for housing, but it is necessary to conduct an improvement on certain details, at dimension that has been measured by using product quality method.
Keywords : quality product, row village, housing
Jakarta was chosen as a part of 100 Resilient Cities Network, this condition could happen because of Governor strong commitment, in building citiy resilience in social, economic, and environmental aspects, followed a proactive and innovative approach in addressing these challenges. One of the programs that are Row Kampung Arrangement Program which located in Petogogan, South Jakarta.
In other hand, Leaman (2005) in his study in England stated that generally main issue of building is at the building that does not work properly for its user. There is only about one-third of new building produce positive productivity for its user. Second is the use of energy at operational buildings contributes about 45% carbon dioxide emission in England. The third one is most of property benefits at market commercial does not come from the building itself, but from the increase of land value and redevelopment which generating user’s density. Briefly it means there are three (3) significant aspects in building namely Function, Energy, and Economic aspects.
POE or often called as Post Occupancy Evaluation. Term of POE itself according to Watson (2003) is a systematic evaluation concerning argument/opinion of the use of building from the building users itself. POE alone initially is used to asses function aspect.
POEs generally is aimed to deliver buildings’ parameter variable/indicator. The collection of POE data is usually conducted in actual and based on relevant parameter in every building stage cycle. A study conducted by POE Watson (2003) in Marlborough Technology Center School, New Zealand discovered that the center succeeded in encouraging student to learn and produce key recommendation for the future.
A study related to post occupancy evaluation has been done many. Ilham (2008) observed initial occupancy stage condition and post occupancy of Mojosongo residential in Solo Indonesia, to assess initial occupancy stage condition and post occupancy of Mojosongo residential and housing units in Solo. Research result suggested that had been occurred a change of housing and residential in Mojosongo toward a better direction. Standard housing construction that less fulfilled at the beginning of occupancy consisted of: (1) building area, (2) window’s width, as well as (3) ceiling height. Whereas residential’s facilities and infrastructures that were not fulfilled namely clean water, and utilization of open space. Facilities that meets proper criteria for a residential unit and healthy environment, such as floor material, ceiling, availability of enough green open space, proper facilities up to low building density at initial occupancy stage. Looking at a good housing condition at initial post occupancy condition, this proves that Low Cost Housing is not a city threat. Provision of Low Cost Housing can be made as an alternative solution for livable housing shortage in Surakarta city.
Post Occupancy Evaluation has also been conducted by Irawan (2009) who observed objects at flats in Jakarta. Research result suggested that (1) the necessity over room type rapidly developed in several development periods, it seen from various room programs, (2) width of housing unit is increasingly large, based on provision that the smallest unit is 30 m2 with 2 (two) bedrooms, the necessity of unit area also needs to be noted adjusted to different resident targets and adjusted with needs of room of the resident target such as factory workers/students or small/medium family that only need multipurpose room for their housing units. (3) positioning of space zone in several periods does not have any drastic change, positioning of space zone at housing unit has met criteria in space arrangement standard, (4) type of materials are getting better based on several periods, only at certain parts the use of materials has not met one criteria, including finishing for rooms in housing unit and (5) flat building’s design and façade are getting better, hence it may improve the flat’s image. Furthermore to improve negative perception on the flats this can be recommended including: (1) attempts to produce a more dynamic and imaginative form, (2) selects low maintenance building materials (3) processes the material selection into a more interesting material and has an aesthetic value.
POE study which has a relation with social aspect has been observed by several experts despite it focused more to environment. Sodok (2008) stated that emerges socio-technic perspective aspect at research fostered area. Cole et al. (2008) stated that also emerges a more wide idea of convenient in which therein contains psychological and socio-culture definition as well as convenient physiological dimension. This is eventually emerging “interactive adaptation” concept between building and people. At the same time social practice theory has came playing a more important role in widening resident’s comprehension, convenience and energy.
Chiu (2014) who observed social and technic approach in conducting POE focusing on interactive adaptation in retrofit in UK in one of his conclusions stated that social and technic approach will bring a complete POE result and inter-discipliner science in nature.
Problems Question: How the evaluation result of post-occupancy of Petogogan Row Village is reviewed from product quality.
This research was conducted start from planning stage, namely by formulating the research instrument, which was conducted by doing early survey to assignment provider institution (policy and technology implementation research and development center), and to building (housing and residential research and development center), as well as to research area institution (Petogogan village, South Jakarta and location of row village development).
Field survey was conducted by collecting, selecting and sorting the data. These steps were continued with observations and interviews, and completed with Focus Group Discussion. Data collection was continued with descriptive analysis using Product Quality from (Garvin, 1987). In his theory Garvin formulated 8 (eight) quality categories namely 1) Performance, performance refers to main character of a product. 2) Features, Features are related to supporting aspect of the performance, characteristic becomes the supporting supplement of main function. 3) Reliability, a dimension reflects possibility of dysfunction or error at specific period. 4) Conformance, Conformance is a level in which product design and operational character conform to the determined standard. 5) Durability, Durability is a measure of product age, durability has economic and technic dimension. 6) Serviceability, serviceability is related to speed, regulation, competition and improvement easiness. 7) Aesthetics, Aesthetics is related to subjective dimension of the quality. 8) Perceived Quality, consumers do not always have complete information related to service attribute; indirect measure is probably a basis of determination. Systematical variable and indicator used in research are explained in table 1.
Table 1. Factor of Post Occupancy Evaluation of Row Village Petogogan
At this writing is also displayed research result at quantitative aspect only, qualitative research is used to see and draw conclusion of the research.
Petogogan Row Village is a program of DKI Jakarta Province Government to revitalize (rearrange and rebuild) slump area located in Petogogan Village, Kebayoran Baru sub district, South Jakarta Administrative City.
Petogogan Row Village Development Committee involves South Jakarta Administrative City Mayor, Petogogan headman, Chief of RW and RT as well as community leaders. The address of this activity is at Wijaya I road, Langgar alley RT 008,010,011,012 / RW 05, Kebayoran Baru, South Jakarta. The owner of the building is DKI Jakarta Province Government used by Petogogan citizen (RW 5).
Physical Data of Row Village was row building form with total area by 5.265 m2 , 2 floors (Type 18 & Type 36) with total amount of house being repaired was 123 units ( Type 36 : 103 Units & Type 18 : 20 Units ) and total unit that received medium repaired was 14 units (RW 05) and 71 units (RW 03).
Table 2. House Type of Petogogan Row Village
Community’s view in the vicinity of row village stated that they received in fact desired their area to be arranged like row village to minimize flood and if later their village to be arranged like row village, they wanted the width of housing area is added make it wider, not like a narrow village.
B. Description of Petogogan Row Housing Community
Total built unit at Petogogan Row Village is 137 units namely 200 families. Origin of housing unit inhabitants at Petogogan Row Village is mostly from Tegal, Brebes and Cirebon. Length of stay of reside in DKI in average is more that 30 years. All families live in Row Village for 2 years without additional number of residents after the row village was built. Total inhabitant per unit was around 2 up to 8 people, in average 5 people. Most residents were entrepreneurs and private workers with average salary by 2.8 million rupiah and average education is Junior High School.
III. Result and discussion
Evaluation of post occupation of Petogogan row village is analyzed from eight factors to measure consumers satisfaction (Gasperz, 1997), in this term is community living in Petogogan Row Village, consisting performance, feature, serviceability, perceived quality, reliability, aesthetics, durability, and conformance.
A. Descriptive Analysis
Performance is a factor related to functional aspect of a product according to indicator of table 1. Based on recapitulated data, Petogogan row village residents assessed that functional aspect of Petogogan row village can be concluded as proper shown from percentage of proper value by 53.37%. Furthermore, 6.45% respondents assessed that functional aspect of Petogogan row village was adequate, 4.74% assessed that functional aspect in Petogogan row village was not adequate, and 14.74% assessed that functional aspect in Petogogan row village was not exist.
Of nineteen identified functional aspects, majority respondents assessed that hall facility, gas network facility, and sport facility was not available in Petogogan row village. Other terms from observation, interviews, and focus group discussion result with village official, PUSKIN, and community that can be highlighted in functional aspect was clothesline availability. Data of questionnaire result stated that 8 respondents stated clotheslines facility was proper, 15 respondents stated that clotheslines facility was not proper, and 13 respondents stated that clotheslines facility was inadequate. Condition in field and from interview has been conducted together with stakeholders stated that one of shortages in planning of Petogogan Row Village development was no clothesline facility. Therefore, beside limited information and interpretation validation needs to be conducted qualitatively and deeper exploration on functional aspect qualitatively.
If from data that has been recapitulated in each functional aspect multiplied by Likert scale to derive functional aspect rank indicating citizen’s satisfaction will get value of functional aspect satisfaction from the highest to the lowest. To gain total value of every functional aspect is calculated by using formula:
D1 = Data for adequate value
D2 = Data for proper value
D3 = Data for less proper value
D4 = Data for inadequate value
D5 = Data for none value
From total performance calculation result, respondents at Petogogan Row Village argued that available fire extinguisher gets priority 1 as an adequate functional aspect. Top five functional aspect considered as adequate by respondents respectively are fire extinguisher, education, facility maintenance and public objects, electricity, and bathroom/toilet room facility. From the interview result, a significant change is perceived by Petogogan row village’s residents to the bathroom facility which previously not available (before residents of Petogogan row village carried out their bathroom activities in the river/helicopter) however, with the existing of Petogogan row village those activities are done at the bathroom, so it is obvious that the functional aspect of bathroom/toilet facility receives high satisfaction value.
Furthermore, lowest performance functional aspects is hall facility in which in Petogogan row village hall as the center for community activities is not available. Five lowest functional aspects respectively are hall, gas network, Mosque, clothesline, and sport facilities. According to interview result with many stakeholders stated that one of shortages in the planning of Petogogan row village development is unavailable clothesline, so it is obvious that clothesline gets lowest value of the functional aspect.
From performance data of 40 respondents that had been collected, 52% respondents of Petogogan row village assessed that from performance side, all available functional aspects is assessed as proper, 22% less proper, 15% none, 5% not adequate and only 6% stated the functional facility was adequate. However, overall, the Petogogan row village residents assessed that of performance side, functional aspects was assessed as PROPER.
1) From the observed facilities, 3 facilities have highest satisfaction level is fire extinguisher, education facility, facility maintenance and public objects; 4 facilities that have lowest satisfaction level are hall, gas network, mosque, and clothesline. From housing modification needs, respondents stated the spatial change is more needed compared to change of the building and the structure. From area service, accessibility, flat location, and distance from activity center is very dominant in providing live satisfaction for the row village residents. Whereas width of housing unit is a thing need to get attention.
Features is a factor related to choices and its development, in this term is building design, in which the consumers are faced to design choices and building design development offered by the developer. Included in feature aspect is change of room, such as bed room, bathroom, kitchen, terrace; change of building parts such as window frame, window, door, ceiling, roof; and change of building structure (column, block and else).
Based on recapitulation of feature factor of 40 respondents in Petogogan row village, amounted to 20 people argued that change of room needs to be conducted. This suggests that the spatial arrangement of Petogogan row village is currently unable to satisfy residents’ needs. Graphically, proportion of value of respondent who answer it is necessary or not the need for a change from feature factor is displayed in Figure 8.
Figure 8. Proportion Graph of Feature Factor Value
Hereinafter for second and third aspects namely change of building parts and change of building structure, most respondents argued that current building parts and structure is quite good no need for a change.
From percentage diagram of feature value, can be concluded that 58% respondents stated that no need for a change of features in other words that they have quite satisfied with current row house model, and 32% stated it is necessary to change the feature on row house building at Petogogan row village.
Reliability is a factor related to failure level in the use of product. At this reliability factor was not conducted a deeper analysis since it needed a long period to get to know the feasibility of the house function itself. This reliability includes to social, economic and environment factors. Aspects include in reliability factor among others are harmony (residents activities), tolerance (understanding tribes, religions, race, and groups differences), way of problem solving in community, dispute, desire to control others, and desire to gain social position (ambition among residents).
From the explored data, most respondents argued that harmony at Petogogan row village is quite well. It is suggested from nearly the same demographic condition from the age (the gap is not too large), residents activity that routinely held such as routine Qur’an recitation is held every Saturday night, social gathering actively is held, community service, and physical location of row villages that close with each other causes the harmony established at Petogogan row village is good. The good of harmony value established by the residents is also affecting residents’ tolerance among residents either from religion or tribe side. Most residents lived in Petogogan row village are originated from the same area namely Tegal and Cirebon hence for conflict issue between religions or tribe never take place in Petogogan row village.
Third aspect related to residents’ reliability at Petogogan row village is ability to seek a solution if dispute among residents occurred. Based on questionnaires and interviews data that have been collected, standard guidance regarding dispute among residents of Petogogan row village is not available. It can be proven from residents who do not aware of the problem solving procedure, whether it needs to be solved amicably, on behalf of RT, or under government (village administrative) institution.
Latest aspect related to reliability is residents’ desire/ambition to gain social position. Based on data collected qualitatively, almost no resident has ambition to control others or placing certain position in community. All community leader selection process is conducted in deliberation. It has become one of supporting factor of harmony, and tolerance among residents of Petogogan row village. Therefore, short study that has been conducted concludes that Petogogan row village residents’ reliability factor has quite well. In-depth qualitative study and in quite long period are required to assess reliability factor deeper.
2) Quite strong social cohesion is proven from research result related to residents union. Social reliability related to harmony, tolerance, and problem solving is generally good. Dispute in a family and between families is took place in small escalation and can be solved in small number of neighbor level. Social jealousy level is still at medium level, several cases encountered there are jealous party regarding neighbor’s belonging on certain objects or time (such as holy day). Desire to get social position in community is relatively low.
Aesthetics is a factor related to design and packing of product in this term is house. Aspects that become aesthetic assessment are the aesthetic assessment of oneself housing unit, and aesthetic assessment of neighbor housing unit (the best and worst). From direct observation and collected data, majority of Petogogan row village lacks in maintenance and in creating housing aesthetic condition. This can be seen from many unused stuffs but it is still placed inside or outside the house so it makes the house full and untidy. Overall, there is no complaint related to building aesthetic, instead complaint related to aesthetic comes from Petogogan row village resident itself because they could not arrange, sort and select improper goods, or can not be reused.
3) During survey, which were 2 years after occupying, there were several dissatisfactions related to occupied building aesthetic, whereas according to respondents’ perception, the best household was at RT 12, and also encountered an embarrassing case regarding aesthetic condition of the household.
Durability is a factor related to product durability or lifetime. In term of housing product quality it is like the condition of the floor, frame and wall. Term assessed in this factor is length of stay and social convenient of stay. From collected data of 40 respondents, majority said that living in row village at present gives them convenient if compared to prior condition before the row village was built. Many opinions was expressed by community related to their future whether they want to stay in row village or moved to other places. There was an argument saying that next 5 – 10 years they want to move to another place even though at present they still don’t have any plans where to reside, but there were also some sayings they want to live forever in row village. However according to brief data exploration, government with its row village program can be assessed as successful because many Petogogan row village residents (above 30%) still wants to live in a long period, at least 20 more years of their lifetime.
Serviceability is a factor related to easiness of the product quality. If it is associated with housing product such as facilities and infrastructure, as well as location factor. Aspects assessed for serviceability factor are flat location, accessibility, and distance from the city center, lease provision, lease retribution, housing unit width, lighting, and air circulation. Based on research result, 70% respondents argued that row village location is strategic, 65% argued that location accessibility with activity place is closed considering Petogogan location is closed with Jakarta city center, 97% argued that lease provision is very easy and cheap (92%), 50% argued that the width of housing unit is very lacking, 63% argued that the lighting is enough and 48% argued that air circulation in Petogogan row village is quite good. Overall, Petogogan row village location is strategic and close to city activity center, however most respondents are also argued that the width of housing is very lacking even though the lighting and air circulation for them are enough.
Conformance is related to product conformity level on specification that has been set beforehand based on consumer’s desire. Related to this measure factor, the fulfillment standard of modest housing quality type 36 that has been set either for product quality factor, building design, as well as facility and infrastructure by related party are parts of this measure factor. Aspect assessed in conformance factor is an effort to improve economic and social welfare. From collected data most of Petogogan row village residents want to improve their economic welfare. One of things they want to do is by entrepreneurship. In addition, the government has also provided supports in order to assist economic condition of Petogogan row village residents one of them is by rice distribution.
8. Perceived Quality
Perceived Quality is a factor related to quality perceived by consumers, for an instance is to improve self esteem, and moral. In this research did not conduct a measurement on this factor due to limitation of measurement limitation, however several aspects that will be measured related to perceived quality is manager service, residents union, socialization and marketing, regional government participation, security factor, and cleanliness factor. Based on research result, 70% Petogogan row village residents assess that management service is good, 77% assesses that residents union has been accommodated, 90% also argues that socialization and marketing has been good considering Petogogan row village often receives visitation from government institution, 70% argues that regional government participation has been good, and majority of them agreed that by living in row village makes community’s life safer and cleaner. Things needs to be highlighted from security aspect, based on interview with residents in Petogogan row village at present is motorcycle theft. Petogogan row village is also often used as place as place for fugitive if there is a commotion action. Therefore, a long term research needs to be conducted to analyze perceived quality.
Issue regarding provision of drinking water is also emerged, because before from the groundwater or wells its continuity is smooth and cheap cost, but now it is often jammed and water dues increased to 10 fold to pay local water company. Certificate ownership legality issue becomes important issue for the row village.
Human settlement infrastructure before Row Kampung Arrangement Program is in bad condition. Access to sanitation, clean water, roads, drainage is very limited. This condition affects people who live in this neighborhood. Row Kampung Arrangement Program increase region resilience in social, economic, and environmental aspects. For example, in social aspects, relationship between citizens become more harmonious after arrangement program, Kampung condition become more safer, no more motor vehicles theft accident. In environment aspects, some significant changes could be seen. In economic aspect is characterized by small business units emergence where small restaurant, grocery store, laundry, and other business units.
From research result of post occupation evaluation of Petogogan row village in Jakarta, by using product quality method, is derived result per dimension namely performance at proper-use level. From Features dimension, obtained result stating no need change of features or there are satisfaction with current row house building model. Reliability dimension perceived by row residents is at level quite good. Aesthetic dimension of Petogogan row house, stated that there is no issues of available building, however aesthetic issues emerges because the residents’ behavior itself. Durability dimension, found out that current residents have a plan to stay even more than 20 years, this suggests the success of this aspect. Serviceability of Petogogan row house from research result has been good, and able to show easiness of product quality. Generally conformance dimension has been suited with specification required by the consumers. From quality perceived dimension up to research result reported that Petogogan row village ability has been good, however research with along period still needs to be conducted.
Generally Petogogan row village has shown a good quality for housing product, but it still needs improvement on certain details, at dimension that has been measured by using product quality method.
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