Friday, 1 April 2011

socio anda spacial aspect of lanslide in Aek Latong

Abstract
The occurrence of landslides in road incident Siborong-borong - Padang Sidempuan, which connects the city Tarutung - Sipirok, precisely on until KM 133 KM 133 000 +900, resulting in removal of the village as far Latong AEK 2-3 miles to the southeast. Avalanches occurred since 1998 which resulted in damage to settlements and fields Aek Latong villagers. Provision of new settlements by the local government, sufficient to accommodate the villagers but not taking into account the livelihoods work. Research focused on social and economic aspects to look LOSS potential effect of spatial mismatch with the needs of rural citizens. Also measures necessary to eliminate the socio-economic problems. This type of research is quantitative descriptive use of economic calculation to explain the social and economic potential due to avalanches that occurred in the village of Aek Latong, in line Tarutung - Sipirok. Primary data obtained by interviews, FGDs and the questionnaire with selected resource persons in the surrounding community. The results showed that total losses due to loss of economic potential that is equal to Rp. 95 million in 2008 and Rp.496 million cumulatively, because no inclusion of the economic plan in the arrangement of space Aek Latong village. Research recommendations is the provision of replacement jobs lost, one with local government efforts to provide assistance for land use permission Aek Latong citizens working on land belonging to indigenous villages around the village Aek Latong new.
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Keywords: AEK Latong Village, avalanches, the potential socio-economic, policy.

1. Preliminary
Law no. 27/2007 on Spatial Planning Spatial mention that aims to create a safe area of ​​space, comfortable, productive and sustainable. Although the Law does not explicitly mention any indicators to measure these goals, but at least it can be seen that the overall arrangement of space is a process towards a better life and positive.
And spatial relations disaster is strong. Conceptually, the arrangement of space-based disaster mitigation has been included in Law no. 26 of 2007 regarding the arrangement of space. In part consideration of spatial Law points e states that "... geography of the Republic of Indonesia is in the disaster-prone areas so that the necessary arrangement of space-based disaster mitigation as an effort to improve the safety and comfort of life and livelihood"
Similarly, by Act no. 24/2007 on Disaster Management one of the articles in the Disaster Management Act for example states that the implementation and enforcement of spatial planning is one of the organization of disaster relief efforts. The government is very involved in disaster management. This was reaffirmed in Article 37 of the Law on Disaster Management stated that one responsibility of government and local government are aimed at disaster risk reduction to reduce the incidence of adverse effects such as loss of life that may arise as a result of the disaster.
From slightly above description shows that kelindan spatial planning and disaster management are very close. The relevance of this relationship is very tangible in the lives of Indonesia. Various types of natural disasters seemed very familiar with this country. Starting from earthquakes, floods, volcanic eruptions, until the tsunami. When disasters occur, plural hurl once heard a discourse about the relocation of residents affected by the disaster to a new place that feels more secure and policy makers better for them. Starting from the discourse of relocating residents who live in the Mentawai coast after the tsunami October 25, 2010 (metrotvnews.com, 2010), then plan to relocate residents in Papua Wasior after hit by flash floods (republika.co.id, 2010), and then plan the transfer of affected communities 2009 earthquake in Padang Pariaman (field-today.com, 2010).
Thus even with a small village located in Sumatra causeway. Aek Latong Village is located in central Sumatra highway, which connects the city of Medan and Padang. Located on the road Siborong-borong - Padang Sidempuan, with the nearest town is in the north and Sipirok Tarutung in the South. Causeway that crosses the central Sumatran village since 1997 Aek Latong experienced landslides. Soil erosion experienced by the middle of Sumatra highway was also damaged Latong Aek village land. Soil erosion causes the door of the house residents can not be opened. Genesis worst landslide occurred in 2002. This destructive landslides cause damage to coconut trees, bamboo, rice fields and fish ponds containing carp belong to residents. From the recognition of their citizens have lost almost 85% of their field. The existence of soil erosion are also causing water to land which used to be drunk directly by citizens now have a taste for mud.
Handling people is done by relocating the village Aek Latong. Desa Aek Latong new, built in the old village southeast. Development carried out by local government in 2002. New houses provided by the government of using wood materials, and made with the linear arrangement of the model in the new village main street environment. Chronology of events in the village landslide Aek Latong and Siborong-borong Road - Padang Sidempuan can be seen in Table 1 below.
Table 1. Chronology of landslides in Aek Latong
Year

Incident
1997

January 3, events began to be felt residents Avalanche
2002

Worst landslide occurred
2003

Month 4, the transfer of residents to a new Latong Aek
2007

Making RUTR (not so diperdakan)
2008

Submission of alternative road handling by the Research and Development Dep. PU
2009

Planning design of roads (including EIA)
2010

Implementation of new road construction
Source: interview (2009)
Relocation of communities by the government have been mentioned above, other than write them a physical transfer of population also implies something else that is the sustainability of a society that moved.
Handbook for resettlement plan released by the Asian Development Bank expressed understanding of the relocation as an act of transfer of a settlement of the existing location down to a new location has been determined the result of a policy or program development (ADB, 1998: vi). De Wet in a report on the experience of population displacement in the construction of dams in Africa (2002: 1) defines relocation as a situation where: i) place the development of interventions such as the arrangement of the river, ii) residents who are on track arrangement is transferred; iii) related to the displacement that they have to do then the government facilitating them with compensation, new homes, new land, services, etc.; iv) the shift made permanent because the land they have left behind will change with spatial construction.
Relocation policy by the regional government that occurred in Aek Latong just struggling so far in handling the provision of housing residents, but missing even thinking about the provision of land for a living. This condition causes the difficulty of citizens to make a living, so some people take advantage of the bad roads to make a living with a towing vehicle trouble along the road. Some residents who still have remaining productive land, going back as far as 2-3 miles to pick crops. This condition describes the accommodation of the needs of village residents have not Aek Latong to settle and make a living. Difficulty residents occurred because one of them caused by spatial planning Latong Aek village that has not been responsive to new residents.
This paper will focus on social and economic aspects to look LOSS potential incompatibilities due to spatial structuring of the village with the needs of its citizens. Also measures necessary to eliminate the socio-economic problems.
2. Methodology 2.1. Research Approach
The approach used in this research is by calculating the economic losses due to landslides and citizens who lack proper spatial planning.
Economic development approach is used because one of the substances under study related to economic problems in a region for example, the economic activity of society, welfare, and regional development. 2.2. Location and Implementation
Location of the study focused on the New Village and Village Latong Aek Aek long Latong located in The study was conducted in District Sipirok, South Tapanuli regency, North Sumatra Province.
Data collected through interviews and questionnaires distribution to the public at the sites. This research was conducted in March-July of 2009.
Implementation of the field survey carried out from start early morning at around 09:00 to 11:00 and then continued around the clock for 15:00 to 17:30. Number of respondents 46 with details of 45 families lived in the village of New Latong AEK. And 1 family to stay in AEK Latong long. There were 48 buildings in the village Aek new Latong, 45 is the household, while 3 others are the midwife clinic, school and mosque. 2.3. Data and Analysis
Sources of primary and secondary data obtained qualitatively and quantitatively be analyzed and presented in a variety of presentation techniques (graphics, tabulation) of the findings during the study and analyze the findings using the calculation tools in economic analysis and social.
There are two forms of analysis techniques which were conducted in this study is, first descriptive analysis, and second, quantitative analysis. Descriptive analysis is used to view the actual condition that would provide a detailed picture of village conditions Aek Latong. While the quantitative analysis will be done by using the economic calculation of economic potential is lost because of landslides and Inaccurate spatial planning. 2.4. Profile Research Locations
Activities villagers Aek Latong, namely the men during the day will be outside the home to work in the field or fields sampa afternoon. A small percentage of women is also coming out of the house all day. They used to go from morning until evening before maghrib.
Aek latong Village has a population of 237 inhabitants. With the composition of the population, according to the majority of graduate education is elementary that is equal to 46.41% (110 people). In the second sequence is the most that are not in school 24.89% (59 people). While the rest of junior high and high school diplomas. And there are 2 people graduated from S1. The composition of the population based on the work of the family head is as much as 80% (41KK) farmers, while the rest is a retired civil servant, civil servants, self-employed and not working. With the composition largest religion is Islam.
The total area affected by soil erosion is the area of ​​8 ha (± 1km x 800 M). It is a land of villages Aek Latong, Village and Village Pengkolan Huraba. Desa Aek Latong administratively has an area of ​​5.43 KM2. The position of the area affected by landslide and AEK Latong Village can be seen in figure 1.

Figure 1. position of landslides in Aek Latong
From the observation of damage caused by soil kelabilan greatly affect the economic condition of society Aek Latong. Lots of people who lost their main livelihood of the farmers and also many who lost their property due to landslides and displacement-affected land.
Because of damage to agricultural land, so most people rely more on the results of the tapping sugar palm trees. Palm trees grow naturally in the area Aek Latong. Communities get the 10-15 kg of palm sugar / week or USD 60000-90000, because the market price of palm sugar was Rp 6.000/kg.
Communities also do a chicken farm activities and also goats but not for business, so more on household activities on a small scale.
The difficulties encountered in estimating the amount of revenue because it is difficult to obtain information on land area cultivated and production certainty of the result fields and gardens. The phrase is commonly mentioned by some people is that the result is just enough to meet daily food needs.
By geographic location Latong Aek region relatively far from the crowd both from the District or Sub Sipirok Tarutung. This situation is compounded by AEK Latong trails badly damaged so it is not attractive for people to make the area as a place to open such a business of restaurants, cafes, shops, and other trading activities.
This condition also causes economic activity in the region Aek Latong can not develop properly. However, before the occurrence of natural disasters, many residents also Aek Latong who opened the business stalls and trade along the path Latong Aek.
Location was quiet and the kelabilan land causes the price of land in the area Aek Latong also be relatively inexpensive. Based on information from district Sipirok, note that the price of land in Aek Latong around Rp.2.000-Rp.3.000/M2 or about Rp.2-3juta/Ha based on data NJOP.
Based on the results of Water Resources Research Center, in the village of Aek Latong decrease soil surface ranged from 1-3Cm/hari and until recently the land has come down to a depth of 13m. At the time of the study (2009) slowed to 5Cm/2minggu intensity landslides.
The instability of the land that the community must choose to relocate because of the danger of landslides and ground cracks are dangerous for the safety of Aek Latong.
Local governments to facilitate the relocation of residents by providing new housing in locations that are relatively more secure and not too far from the previous location. But the relocation is carried out by local government only allows people to have a new home without the help of the replacement of the loss of agricultural land Latong Aek community. As a result society can no longer get the previously productive agricultural land is the principal livelihood of society. Spatial form of rural settlement Aek new Latong as shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2. Aek new spatial Latong 3. Results and Discussion 3.1. Basic Theory Theory of Economic Development & Planning
Development of residential relocation for residents affected by disasters such as landslides for AEK Latong citizens, need to see natural law that introduced Adam Smith. This economic theory believes that every person is a judge, who most know its own interests, and should be left free to pursue its interests for the sake of profit. This theory is a private place to compete in a free market for economic development.
Another theory regarding economic development raised John Stuart Mill. He considers economic development is a function of land, labor and capital. According to Mill, land and labor are the two original factors of production, and capital is "a collection of supplies from the previous labor products." In theory it is obvious that the soil is very important factor for economic development.
People of other development economics, Jhingan see agriculture contribute to economic development. Donations are in terms of providing surplus food to an increasing population, increasing demand for industrial products and encourage the necessary expansion of secondary and tertiary sectors; Additional foreign exchange for imports of capital goods, with exports of agricultural products; increase rural incomes and improve people's welfare.
Regional Development Planning Theory
Development planning in rural areas Aek Latong, based on research results is still physical planning, economic planning has not been done.
Physical planning is done to alter the physical structure of the village or take advantage of new Latong Aek associated with spatial or land use land, transportation routes and providing facilities for the public, already done.
Aek rural economic planning Latong related to changes in economic structure and the steps to restore well-being of citizens Aek Latong not yet done.
Physical and economic planning when combined will provide more benefit value, because the target in economic planning will be achieved through physical planning.
Projects in the public interest, not generate revenue directly. The analysis can be done is the socio-economic analysis. This analysis was conducted to assess whether the project is feasible to build / continued or not from the point of interest of the whole society glasses. In the case of spatial planning in the village of Aek Latong comparative analysis is performed by looking at the potential loss of people because of landslides, with economic potential residents if space is equipped with a land plan for the citizens make a living from agriculture, such as the original. 3.1. Economic Calculation
Due to landslides, villagers Aek Latong, losing 80-85 percent of their land. From the research area of ​​land previously owned by Arga Aek Latong is an area of ​​42.1 ha. Most of the fields and farm land that is 28.3 Ha (2/3nya), while the remaining third part is a field that has only harvest once a year.
The fields are generally planted with crops such as coffee, rubber, cocoa, sugar palm and several kinds of crops such as citrus fruits. Time of the study found that ownership of the remaining population of 18.8 hectares of land with details of fields and fields 15:59 3:22 Ha Ha. The composition of any land in table 2. below.
Table 2. Comparison of land before-after landslide
Land

before

after

Land Area
missing
Total land area (Ha)

42,1

18,8

23,3
field (Ha)

13,8

3,2

10,6
field (Ha)

28,3

15,6

12,7
Assuming that the field has only 1 time of the harvest, and the results of research that says that every 1 ha rice field capable of producing about 300 cans of grain (1 tin = 10-11 kg), then the economic potential is lost around 3 tons of dry grain per year, as shown in table 3.
Table 3. Production of paddy fields
Specification approach
Production

Total Kg

USD / Kg

USD / year

USD / month
(Average)
1 Ha field

3.000

2.744

8.231.250

685.938
The remaining broad fields covering an area approximately 15:59 Ha most are no longer planted with productive crops such as rubber, cocoa, and coffee because of the damage caused by landslides. Most of the fields are not productive and there are only palm trees that are still utilized as a raw material for the manufacture of palm sugar.
Utilization of the fields are assumed to palm and coffee, with land productivity of 30 kg of palm sugar and 5 Kg of coffee per Ha / week with productive time for 6 months / year. The results of processed palm sugar on average produce 30 kg of palm sugar that the selling price reached Rp 6,000 / Kg. Count fields can be seen in table 4.
Table 4. Production fields
Specification approach
production

Kg

USD / Kg

USD / week

USD / year
1 Ha Sugar palm

30

6.000

180.000

4.320.000
1 Ha Coffee

5

17.000

85.000

2.040.000
By using the price calculation in 2008, then it can be seen the data table 5. economic potential of public revenue that is lost is almost reached USD 168 million in 2008.
The details are a total potential revenue from the fields USD. 87 million, palm USD. USD 54 million and coffee. 26 million. This figure can be minimized if the government will provide a replacement field in their spatial planning.
Loss of Rp 168 million Rp. 95 million is what is the result of lack of preparation / yet the inclusion of economic planning at the village spatial Aek Latong.
Table 5. Economic potential residents Aek Latong
Description

Rice field

Field aren

Coffee Farm

Total
Year 2008 (IDR)
total potential lost revenue

87.086.625

54.885.600

25.918.200

167.890.425
due to spatial

58.688.813

24.321.600

11.485.200

94.495.613
due to landslides

28.397.812

30.564.000

14.433.000

73.394.812
Year 2002-2008 (IDR)
total potential lost revenue

448.099.607

288.149.400

149.410.800

885.659.807
due to spatial

301.980.171

127.688.400

66.208.800

495.877.371
due to landslides

146.119.436

160.461.000

83.202.000

389.782.436
Cumulative loss from the year of transfer of population (2002) until the time of the study (2009, 2008 data) even close to USD 1 billion. Of Rp 885 million rupiah. Rp. 496 million is what is due to the lack of economic planning at the village spatial Aek Latong.
The loss of economic potential of the community who are mostly subsistence farmers eyed, very heavy Aek latong borne by society. Most of the residents lost their livelihoods and the loss of its main assets, their land was previously a source of local economic activity.
Productive land is left and owned by citizens of any part not in the location of settlements, so at this time Aek latong residents have to travel farther to get to the fields and farms.
Relocation of settlements also makes people lose their jobs and turned into farm land cultivators belong to someone else, because the fields and farms have been affected by the landslide.
4. Conclusion
Impact of land in Aek Latong avalanches that have occurred within a period of more than 10 years is felt by local residents.
The direct impact that occurs is the loss of eyes and also sumbe pencahariaan-source income that has been the mainstay of the people in his family.
The amount of potential revenue lost society as a result of the landslide disaster was Rp. 73 million in 2008, economic potential revenue because of the arrangement of space that does not use economic planning is the USD. 95 million, bringing the total economic loss Latong Aek village community in the year 2008 amounted to Rp.168 million.
The loss of livelihoods most greatly affect the pattern of life and also the welfare of society Aek Latong.
Recommendation
Local government (district or district) need to provide replacement land lost jobs. For example, with efforts to provide assistance for land use permission Aek Latong citizens working on land belonging to indigenous villages around the village Aek Latong new. So that the relocation of settlements residents return Latong AEK also sources of income citizens Latong Aek
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