Friday, 1 April 2011

tourist preference for cultural tourism (yogyakarta palace)

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1. Background Research
The presence of tourism in Yogyakarta Palace is able to bring the number of tourists who are not small. The benefits of tourism activities due to the arrival of tourists from different regions within and outside the country can be felt the manager of Tourism Sultan's Palace. Yogyakarta Palace, which saves a lot of value - the value of culture and architecture have the power that causes berdatangannya the tourists are.
The study was conducted with the basic premise that the architectural design intended for humans. So to get a good design that architects need to understand what the human needs. Or in other words, architects need to understand about human behavior in the broad sense (Laurens, 2004).
Life nobility and shelter that they inhabit as well as relatives and their servants is a matter of interest to the layman. Lines of life as well as demands for more superior than most people make the seat of the nobility who did not get the same with ordinary laity.
Sultan's Palace has become one of the many attractions in the world's primary tourist area in Yogyakarta. The existence of the Palace as an Object and Attractions has attracted the attention of tourists both from domestic and abroad. The existence of the Palace of the structure of the city especially in the early formation of the city until now has been very important. So that helped pariwisatapun sector feeling the impact the existence of an important palace.
Tourists come to a tourist destination with a certain expectation. Motivations behind his coming to tourist destinations is the case that gave rise to these expectations.
Embodiment of the expectations is one of them can ditemukenali of meruang behavior while at the site a tourist destination. Responses that occur from satisfaction or dissatisfaction of tourists into the one thing that needs to be investigated. Due to the recognition of tourists will tour atrasksi ability to meet expectations is an important value of tourism activity.
2. Problem
Experience a tour in the environment Kraton subjective nature, not many provide activities that can be offered to be done by tourists (or less something to do), cultural richness and spatial architecture Kraton using the symbol and meaning need to be captured the meaning of its existence, is merely to be seen or viewed alone (something to see). Settings
flow of tourists visiting is one part that is still weak due to the attention of visitors is monotonous and not evenly. And as a king's Palace residence can be developed as a tourist who caused a deep impression and recognition of the majesty of the royal presence. Although the Sultan's Palace is no longer functioning as a central government that more or less gave rise to the degradation of the authority of the palace.
3. Goal
a. Finding the tourist preferences and appreciation of the rich culture, architecture and spatial Kraton palace in particular and tourism in general as a potential development.
b. Finding a palace tour activity model that can meet the expectations of tourists.
c. Tourism development recommendations Sultan's Palace.
4. Benefits Research
The results of this study is expected to be a particularly constructive input to management managers and also those who care about the existence and development of Tourism Sultan's Palace.
5. Reader Review
Space in which humans move into a place that has a specific meaning. In the search kebenaraan tourist preferences towards cultural tourism architecture Kraton, things that need to be more attention on aspects of human behavior is mainly due to the emergence of behavioral preferences dominate. Especially when humans interact with space and objects at the scene, another man and also socio-cultural potential of the site. Another thing to consider is the approach that research on tourism in particular cultural theme. And knowledge of the Tourism Sultan's Palace.
a. Tourism and Culture Research Approach
Preferences of tourists is part of the decision making process for the tour. According to the model developed (Schmoll, 1977) can be seen the relationship preferences and factors influencing it.
Decision Table Tour
Advertising and promotion
Travel literature
Words other travelers
Recommendations tourist trade bureau
Socioeconomic status
Individual style
The influence and social aspirations
Attitudes and values
Preferences / needs
Travel preferences
Search information
Acceptance / comparisons of alternative tourism
Confidence in the intermediate
Image destination / service
Experience tour
Calculating risk
The relation cost / value
Quality / quantity of information it
Bids attraction / amenity
This type of bid package tours
The range of tourism opportunities
Characteristics and pattern of Destination
Barriers of time and cost
Stimulation bewisata
Personal and Social Influence of Tourism Behaviour
External Factors
In the model developed by Schmoll (1977) can be seen that there are four areas of influence in decision-making tour.
Fields are:
o Stimulation tour
Includes a tour of factors external stimuli. With the form of promotional communication, personal recommendations and the perpetrator of tourism.
o Personal and Social Influence of Tourism Behaviour
It is the thing - things that determine the goals and needs of consumers in the form of tourist preferences, expectations and objective and subjective risks associated with tourism.
o External Factors
It is a prospective tourist confidence in service providers, destination image, the learning experience and the cost and time.
o The characteristics and pattern of Destination
Consisting of the characteristics associated with the destinations or services that have a firm relationship with decision-making and the benefits derived.
In the table can be seen that the preferences, motivations and expectations are influenced by social status - economic, individual style, influence and social aspirations and attitudes and values.
Research on the sociology of tourism according to the book Sociology of Tourism (Pitana, 2005) mentions several things related to tourism studies, among others, also revealed characteristic - the sociological characteristics of Tourism (John Urry, 1990):
o Tourism is a relaxing activity or leisure activity. Not an obligation
o The relationship - the relationship of tourism is due to human movement. The movement is temporary.
o Viewed from the side of tourists, tourism is an activity done at a place and time is "not normal 'while
o Place and attractions are places or events that are not directly related to employment and livelihood tourists
o Many of the modern society the proportion of people engaged in tourism activities, which then becomes a vehicle for socialization
o frequently visited tourist destinations are selected based on imaginary or fantasy, or because of the image (image) the respective destinations
o The tour is something that is 'unusual'
o The role of symbols and markers (Signs) are very large in the success of a tourist destination
o Every tourist destinations are always having updates and additions to the product - a new product.
Sociologists formulate tourism tourist motivation McIntosh (1977) and Murphy (1985) cf.Sharpley (1994) that the motivation - motivation can be grouped into four major groups as follows:
o The motivation of a physical or physiological, among others, for relaxation, health, comfort, participate in sports activities, leisure and so forth.
o Motivation culture, namely the desire to know the culture, customs, traditions and arts of other regions. including also an interest in the remains of cultural objects.
o Motivation of social nature, such as visiting friends and family, meet with partners, to do things - things that are considered to bring prestige, made a pilgrimage, an escape from the situation - a situation that boring, and so on.
o Motivation for fantasy, that is the fantasy that in another area someone will be able to escape from a boring daily routine and seek psychological satisfaction.
The benefits of travel (Krippendorf, 1997: 39-42) can be formulated as
o Travel and tourism is a vehicle for regeneration refresher physically and mentally.
o The tour is a compensation for the various things that tiring, it also serves as a vehicle for social integration for those who feel alienated at home.
o The tour is an 'escape' from everyday situations full of suspense, a dull routine, or saturation - saturation due to workload.
o The tour is a mechanism for someone to be able to release their feelings, through communication with others, including with local communities.
o The tour is a vehicle for developing insight.
o The tour is a vehicle to gain freedom with various secular rituals, or with a variety of 'inversion' that can be done.
o The tour is a vehicle for self-realization.
o The tour is indeed something fun, make life happier.
There are several factors driving tourism activities (Ryan, 1991)
o The fulfillment of desire
o Shopping
o Desire out of kerutinan and saturation
o Getting a relaxed atmosphere
o The opportunity to play
o Strengthen the family atmosphere
o Prestige
o Social interaction
o Increase knowledge
While I get tourist information (Ryan, 1991)
o Friends - friends / family
o Magazines / newspapers
o The airlines / shipping
o The Company travel / trip leader
o Books - guide books / brochures
o Embassy / consulate
o Radio / TV / video
o Internet
o Other
Tourists have three things that can be disclosed after a visit to the tourist attractions:
o Better than Expected
o In accordance with the expected
o It was worse than expected
Tourists also have the impression of aspects - aspects (Ryan, 1991) namely:
o Natural
o cultural attraction
o Ritual
o The people are friendly
o Safe and convenient for tourists
b. And Human Behavior
Views on the behavior of human activities related to space in the book Architecture and Behavior, (Laurens, 2004) cites the views of a landscape architect, who said that the design is generally more stressed the importance of structuring akivitas activity settings. Meanwhile, more users consider anyone who uses the facility, or with whom they will socialize in the use of the facility. So, seen here the difference in priority of basic needs. (Randy Hester in Laurens, 2004).
Randy Hester of view, if compared with the object of study Kraton it will be found that designers in this regard the ruler or king, will pay more attention needs - whatever needs to be accommodated in the space he created. While the user whether the king himself, employees - employees, the royal family, an ordinary person who can access to space - space that is available at the Kraton Yogyakarta would be more concerned with whom he would interact when in the room.
Human behavior in a room has been the subject of study. From previous research found that as the object of empirical studies have behavioral traits - traits as follows
o The behavior itself is invisible, but the causes of behavior may not be directly observed.
o Conduct recognize various levels, that is simple and stereotyped behaviors, such as single-celled animal behavior, complex behaviors such as human social behavior; simple behaviors, such as reflexes, but there is also a mental process involving higher biological.
o The behavior varies with the classification: cognitive, affective and psychomotor, which refers to the nature of the rational, emotional, and physical movement in behaving.
o The behavior can be realized and can also not realized.
(Laurens, 2004)
Human interaction, how he has the perception and preference, and then interact with the setting has been presented schematically in a chart Integrative Human Relations with its Environment (Gilfford, 1987)
Table 6. Human integrative relationships with Environment
. Reality Size Plan reality before entering the setting results in the setting result after entering the setting of Human Setting S1-nM1 Socio-Cultural-nSasaran nSB1, decisions, intentions and emotions Cognition Behavior Behavior Human Body Human Body Cognition and emotion
Chart of Human-Environment Relations integrative above becomes a tool in research on the preferences of tourists on cultural tourism sultan's palace architecture. Where preferences enter into the plan before entering the setting, which is influenced by the size of the realities of the settings, human and socio-cultural. While the effects may be coloring the results in the setting associated with behavior, cognition and emotion is also the human body.
While from the standpoint of space there is the understanding that architecture is not like other art fields present in the daily reality - today. Architecture is a physical space for human activities, which allows the movement of people from one room to another room, which creates pressure between the space within buildings and outside space. However, there is also a form of architecture because of the perception and the human imagination. (Laurens, 2004). Space tourism here in the Sultan's Palace can be interpreted as the space between the palace and its outer environment (in terms of macro) and the space within the Sultan's Palace itself.
Individual processes in meruang activities include things - things as follows (Laurens, 2004):
o Perception of the environment, ie the process of how people receive information about the surrounding environment and how information about the physical space is organized into the human mind.
o Spatial Cognition, which is diversity of thought process further, organize, store and recall information about the location, distance, and order in the physical environment.
o spatial behavior, shows the results manifested in one's actions and responses, including descriptions and personal preferences, emotional responses, or evaluation of behavior tendencies that arise in human interactions with their physical environment.
Testing the degree of this dependence can be observed in various dimensions, among others, include: activities, residents, leadership, population, space, time, objects, behavioral mechanisms. To be able to know how the process happens to be a behavioral observation of the behavior setting. This could represent behavioral observation data set includes:
o Man (who's coming, where and why, who controls settings, etc.)
o Characteristics of the size (how many people per hour is in the settings, how to measure the physical setting, how often and how long the setting exists)
o Objects (how many objects there are and what type of object used in the setting, the possibility of anything for stimulation, response and adaptation)
o Pattern of action (what activities are going on there, how often do people repeat)
Other experts who review about space and the behavior of Amos Rapoport (1990) describes it - the following:
Aspects of activity:
o instrumental aspect that most can be seen from the activity
o How do the activities
o Relationship with the existing system activity
o The meaning, the meaning and intent of the action activity
While the relationship between activity and mediated by cultural architecture. Own culture more visible and can be seen from the social expressions such as family, kinship structures, institutions, status, regulation is a combination of broad vision, values, lifestyles and activities.
Architecture has a very closeness to the behavior, which makes the activity of architectural form:
o Conduct which describes a wide variety of built environment established for the activity
o Activities conducted on the basis of the relationship function and meaning
o Activities should be considered as a part of a chain of events
Amos Rapoport has its own views on the part of the setting behavior, namely:
o Elements of a permanent (buildings, walls, etc.)
o semi-permanent elements (furniture, garden etc.)
o Element is not permanent (people and akftivitas and behavior)
6. Research Methods
a. Research Variables
o Behaviour
o Preferences
o Culture, architecture and spatial
o Sociology tourism
b. Research Subjects and Places
Materials or research materials, which focused on the tourists in terms of preferences and behavior of the rich culture, architecture and spatial sultan's palace, and the parties involved in tourism activities at the study sites
c. Data Collection Techniques
o Using the literature related,
o Observation of visual and sensual,
The use of photographs or video series: to capture the behavior of tourists at a strategic point of research location
Interview: to get information and reasons for tourists to do the activities at a strategic point of study sites. (Use a list of questions and a list of strategic tourist locations)
d. Data Analysis Techniques
Analysis results using operational reasoning approach and dialiktik
7. Peneitian Results and Discussion
a. Identification and Management of Tourist Preferences
From the results of research can be found preferences of tourists who can be accommodated in tourism development and management of Yogyakarta Kingdom. Preferences related to the desire of tourists to enjoy the relaxed atmosphere that exists, socializing activities with friends and other people traveling, enjoying the role as someone who served in a big house, enjoying freedom, have memories of the sultan's palace, and get satisfaction in the tour the Sultan's Palace.
b. Forms of tourism activities
Forms - forms of tourism activities (something to do) that can be accommodated in tourism development and management of Yogyakarta Kingdom, was an attempt Kraton managers to develop tourism activities. Tourism managers to perform the development activities of socialization among tourists, activities using the tools of traditional musical instruments, human contact with animals and plants that exist in the sultan's palace, which provides gift activities, development activities that have a value of local glory, recognition of kin sultan's palace, the provision of special tourist events.
c. Attractions Management Forms
Form of management of cultural attractions and architecture that can meet the expectations of tourists and bring recognition of the existence of Kraton mainly deals with settlement of Tour Guide, plants and animals, places - a resting place (transition), settlement and development of tourism Line, information and schedule of Tourism.
d. Conclusion
Conclusions from the analysis of research on Cultural Tourism Tourist Preferences Architecture sultan's palace, divided into three main sections according to the analysis tools associated with behavior, cognition and emotion and the human body also sosilogi tourism. Conclusions drawn and divided into three main aspects. Aspect
of conclusions related to: Identification and Management of Tourist Preferences, Form of Tourism, Attractions Management Forms.
Tourist preferences that appear to be developed at locations associated with the Sultan's Palace to enjoy the memories and glory of the Kingdom, freedom of expression with no pressure in a relaxed atmosphere.
Tourism activities should be developed in the Sultan's Palace is an activity related to the development of local glory, with the advanced active action from the tourists.
Management of cultural and architectural attractions Kraton necessary to meet the expectations of tourists and bring recognition of the existence of Yogyakarta Kingdom.
e. Recommendation
o Development of cultural wealth and art involving tourists who prioritizes emotional atmosphere of the past tourists, a sense of togetherness and kinship
• Kraton used as an active museum (living museum) of the cultural richness of Java (in this case Yogyakarta), such as traditional kids games, tools - tools of traditional arts, traditional dress, with involving tourists as part of the attraction.
• Development of a beautiful park area and the arrangement of circulation path as part of relaxation and socialization for tourists with maintaining cleanliness and neatness of the area visit
• The introduction of said words and Java languages ​​for tourists who come from outside the tribe Java by tour guides.
• Provision of dedicated space pemutaraan movie palace life, depicting the life of past royal palace until today. (Both daily life - today and in the organization of the ceremony - ceremony only)
o Wildlife and Vegetation
• Explanation of the tourist wealth of wildlife and vegetation collection that stores the value and purpose to inform tourists with scientific or Latin name. Causing a deep impression to tourists on the value of wildlife and vegetation presence of Sultan Palace.
• Pembutan shade lines in the circulation area tourists.
o The addition of facilities to support the basic needs of tourists
• Cooperation Palace manager with bottled water company to place an ad with the provision of reciprocal provision of bottled water free 10 boxes per day
• Provision of foot massage and foot soak with showing four admission
• Giving stickers and signatures of the Sultan in a gift package for travelers who can show three tickets in three different days
• Increase in ticket price of 5,000, - to Rp. 6000, - with details of Rp.200, - for free bathroom, Rp.200, - for free stickers, 500, - for energy massagers. And Rp.100, - to free drinking water.
• Development of rest areas to provide tap water for washing hands and feet, providing a cushion, or seat that can be used all the tourists.
• The tickets provide a place to help travelers save valuable goods or goods that do not need to be carried around the Palace
o Integration of a schedule of activities and celebrations
• Make a bulletin board or banner which contained a schedule of activities is in the Palace environment. On the path - a strategic path through which the tourists.
• Disseminate information to the bureau of tourism activities Palace - travel agency
• Provide specialized staff who can provide additional facilities for organizers of activities outside the Palace of the Kingdom as one of the locations of activities, such as welcoming banners, souvenir items are made specifically for the group and schedule a meeting with relatives of the Palace.
• Opens court on request to schedule around the palace by night while enjoying the cultural arts performances. With the entry rate 3 times higher than during the day.
o Management of marketing of tourism products
• Organizing competitions for children - children and teenagers to introduce the culture and Tourism Palace
• Development of the Palace with a media campaign involving students who have the competence to art and culture by making the contest a poster and leaflet campaign Palace. That prize is given directly by the Sultan.
• Provide T-shirts to display pedicab Tourism Palace in stations and terminals.
• Make a photo collection that belongs repro palace library.
• Sales of commodities of goods sold in kiosks officially Kingdom through magazines and the Internet.
• Increase the feeling of having a community with the writing contest and polls about development Tourism Palace through the mass media.
• Conducting memorandum of cooperation with managers of other tourist areas are strategic to the existence of the Kraton, eg Prambanan, Borobudur Temple, Sultan Paku Alaman, Kasunanan Kraton of Solo and so forth.
o Management of Tour Guide
• Menyiadakan break room (sort of club guide) a comfortable and relaxed as a means of unity and development of tourist guides
• Prepare a guide with such specificity the special tourist children - children, women and other special segments which can be directly selected tourists when buying tickets.
• Conduct outbound activities for a tour guide so that reinforces a sense of kinship between the guide
• records, develop skills and knowledge of tour guides. By cooperating with academic institutions Tourism
o Management of tourist flow
• Managers to evaluate the areas that get less traffic then improve the quality of the existing environment
• Setting the group that there is so not the same each visit an attraction spot

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